Faces in the Street
a novel by Pip Wilson
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Lawson and Co.
People, things and events directly and indirectly associated with Louisa and Henry Lawson, and the radical, feminist, artistic and ratbag scene of Australia in their time. Many names were friends and colleagues of the Lawsons; others are associated by being contemporaries and in Australia, but didn't meet them. Some items contemporaneous and just out of interest. See also The Louisa Lawson and Henry Lawson Chronology (five big pages).
Active Service Brigade • Francis Adams • Frederick Matthias Alexander • Maybanke Anderson • JA Andrews • David Mackenzie Angus • SS Aramac bombing • JF Archibald • Julian Ashton • Australasian Secular Association • Australian Socialist League • Australian Workman • Edmund Barton • Daisy Bates • Barbara Baynton • Earl Beauchamp • Randolph Bedford • Bermagui Mystery • Annie Besant • George Black • Barcroft Boake • Rolf Boldrewood • William Booth • Edwin Brady • Christopher Brennan • Frederick Brentnall • John Le Gay Brereton • Fred Broomfield • The Bulletin • Ada Cambridge • Raffaello Carboni • Joseph Carruthers • HH Champion • William Chidley • Circular Quay bomb plot • Circular Quay riot, 1890, Sydney • Marcus Clarke • William Whitehouse Collins • Charles Conder • William Patrick Crick • Joseph Crouch ('Rev. Dr Oswald Keating') • Dagworth Station arson • Victor Daley • Eleanor Dark • The Dawn • Dawn Club • Dawn and Dusk Club • Anderson Dawson • Medway Day • Alfred Deakin • Dulcie Deamer • Frederick Deeming 'The Demon' • CJ Dennis • Arthur Desmond • George Dibbs • Ignatius Donnelly • John Dwyer • William Dymock • Edward Dyson • Will Dyson • Havelock Ellis • Eureka Stockade • John Farrell • Federation of Australia • Fight of the Century • Andrew Fisher • Chummy Fleming • Miles Franklin • Franz Ferdinand, Archduke • 'Freedom on the Wallaby' • Joseph Furphy/Tom Collins • Edward Garnett • Henry George • May Gibbs • Mary Gilmore • Vida Goldstein • Adam Lindsay Gordon • Jim Gordon/James Grahame • Percy Grainger • Great White Fleet • Young Griffo • Hal Gye • Lesbia Harford • Lawrence Hargrave • Charles Harpur • Haymarket bombing • Haymarket Martyrs • John Haynes • Walter Head • Harry Holland • William Holman • Bland Holt • Lord Hopetoun • Livingston Hopkins ('Hop') • Houdini flies in Australia • William Morris Hughes • Lizzie Humphrey • Nelson Illingworth • Jandamarra • Helen Jerome • Clara Jones • Duke Kahanamoku ('The Big Kahuna') • Annette Kellerman • Ned Kelly (Glenrowan siege) • Ned Kelly hanged • Henry Kendall • Georgina King • Rudyard Kipling • Knights of Labor • Labor gov't: first in world • Peter Lalor • Annie Lane • Ernest Lane • William Lane • Jack Lang • Bertha Lawson • Henry Lawson • Henry Lawson's funeral • Louisa Lawson • Will Lawson • Charles Webster Leadbeater • Leigh House • Limelight Department • Norman Lindsay • Ruby Lindsay • David Low • Gresley Lukin • Mungo MacCallum • Louise Mack • Dorothea Mackellar • Mary MacKillop • William Macleod • Frank P Mahony • Tom Mann • Daniel Mannix • Katherine Mansfield • Maritime Strike of 1890 • Phil May • Orpheus Myron McAdoo • George Gordon McCrae • Frederick McCubbin • Billy McLean shooting • William 'Machine Gun' McMillan • Bertha McNamara (née Bertha Bredt) • WHT McNamara • Richard Denis Meagher • Nellie Melba • Melbourne Anarchist Club • Emma Miller • David Scott Mitchell • Dora Montefiore • Captain Moonlite • Breaker Morant • Jack Moses/Dog on Tuckerbox • Tom Mutch • New Australia and Cosme • John Norton • Bernard O'Dowd • King O'Malley • Max O'Rell • Henry Steel Olcott • Vance & Nettie Palmer • Henry Parkes • AB 'Banjo' Paterson • Larry Petrie • Marie Pitt • Rosa Praed • Colonel Tom Price • Katharine Susannah Prichard • Roderic Quinn • QVB opened • Arthur Rae • Republican Riot, 1887, Sydney • Henry Handel Richardson • Alban Joseph Riley • Tom Roberts • George Robertson • John Robertson • Paddlesteamer Rodney burned • Sam Rosa • Steele Rudd • Rose Scott • Shearers' Strike of 1891 • Kate Sheppard • Granny Smith • Smith's Weekly • Soldiers of the Cross • Catherine Helen Spence • WG Spence • Captain Starlight • AG Stephens • Bertram Stevens • Dave Stevenson • Robert Louis Stevenson • Arthur Streeton • Rev. Charles Strong • Pat Sullivan/Felix the Cat • Rose Summerfield • Surfing origins/Isabel Letham • Sydney Anarchy Trial of February, 1894 • Sydney Anarchy Trial of June, 1894 • Sydney cricket riot of 1879 • Sydney Ducks in San Francisco • Sydney Twelve, The • Joseph Symes • Quong Tart • Tasma (Jessie Couvreur) • Adolphus George Taylor • Florence Taylor • George Augustine Taylor • The flying Taylors • Tenterfield Oration • Hannah Thornburn • Thunderbolt • Ben Tillett • WH Traill • PL Travers • Tree of Knowledge • Sydney Truth • Ethel Turner • Mark Twain in Australia • 'Up the Country' poetic contest • Thomas Walker • 'Waltzing Matilda' • Price Warung • Chris Watson • Beatrice Webb • Sidney Webb • Robert Bradford Williams • JC Williamson • William Nicholas Willis • Margaret Windeyer • William Windeyer • William Robert Winspear • Wobbly Tom Barker arrested • Wobblies outlawed • Womanhood Suffrage League • Women's suffrage, Australia • Women's suffrage New Zealand • Women's suffrage, South Australia • World chronology of women’s suffrage • David McKee Wright • WWI anti-conscription struggle • Alfred Yewen • Lamont Young •
More than 230 people who appear or are mentioned in the book
(Read at own risk as you might find plot spoilers)
Abbott, Sir Joseph Palmer (September 29, 1842 - September 15, 1901), NSW lawyer and politician, Speaker of the NSW Legislative Assembly (October 22, 1890 - June 12, 1900); NSW delegate to the Federal Conventions of 1891, 1897 and 1898 where he acted as Chairman of Committees.
Anderson, Maybanke (February 16, 1845 - April 15, 1927), women’s suffrage campaigner, amateur historian, educator, writer, co-founder, with Louisa Lawson, Rose Scott (qv), and Dora Montefiore (qv), of the WSL (qv) and president from 1893-96. Deserted by her unemployed timber-merchant husband Edmund Wolstenholme in December, 1884, she shortly thereafter founded the successful Maybanke College. Anderson published Women’s Voice magazine which, following in the footsteps of Louisa Lawson’s Dawn, was produced by female workers. She was foundation president of the Kindergarten Union of NSW which opened Australia’s first free kindergarten (possibly first in the British Empire) in the working-class suburb of Woolloomooloo in 1896. In 1899 she married (Sir) Francis Anderson, Professor of Philosophy at the University of Sydney. Anderson was secretary of the Playgrounds Association of New South Wales until the 1920s. Among much else, she wrote The Root of the Matter: Social and Economic Aspects of the Sex Problem, 1916.
Andrews, John Arthur (JA Andrews; October 27, 1865 - 1903), anarchist writer and pamphleteer, poet, inventor, philosopher, arguably the most remarkable of the group that came together in the Melbourne Anarchist Club. Henry Lawson met him (c. 1892) when Andrews was 27 and campaigning in Sydney (for which he ended up in Parramatta Gaol). Bertram Stevens (qv) wrote that Andrews “was as gentle as a grub and looked like Christ”. He was so poor that sometimes he “lived on opossums” in the bush and resided in a water tank. During 1889 much of his writing was published in Bob Winspear’s (qv) Radical. He couldn’t afford a lead-type printing press, but managed to produce Anarchist (1891) and various tracts on a home-made contraption using a wooden font carved for the purpose. He was associated with Joseph Schellenberg (qv) and the Smithfield communist-anarchists while in Sydney from late-1890, helping to establish the Communist-Anarchist Group of Central Cumberland operations centre there. His writings were highly philosophical but he was also a hard-working activist. He spent time in prison for his activities, for sedition and other crimes such as not having a publisher’s imprint on his A Handbook of Anarchy (1894) After his early death from tuberculosis he was compared to Tolstoy, Kropotkin (qv), Thoreau (qv) and Verlaine, among others. Influenced by mystic Madame Blavatsky (qv) and probably by the tour of Australia by Annie Besant (qv), in 1897 Andrews, Schellenberg and John Dwyer (qv) founded an Isis Lodge in Sydney and attempted its affiliation with the Theosophical Society in London.
Angus, David Mackenzie (July 12, 1855 - February 21, 1901), Scotish-born Australian bookseller, partner with George Robertson (qv) in the prominent book publisher and bookseller, Angus & Robertson.
Archibald, JF (Jules François Archibald; b. John Feltham Archibald; January 14, 1856 - September 10, 1919), Australian publisher who in 1880 co-founded (with John Haynes, qv) The Bulletin, which published a great many of Australia’s writers and artists. Like many Australians of his day, he was fascinated by all things French, changing his name from John Feltham to Jules François; he even wore a French goatee beard although they were not fashionable. Under Archibald’s sole control, and with AG Stephens (qv) as his literary editor, The Bulletin became Australia’s leading outlet for poets, cartoonists, short-story writers and comic writers. Henry Lawson was one who ‘Archy’ of the ‘Bully’ took under his wing as a young writer. In 1906 Archibald was admitted to Callan Park Hospital for the Insane, but after two years made a complete recovery. Says the Australian Dictionary of Biography: “In 1914, with some bitterness, he sold his interest in the Bulletin – now markedly more conservative. ‘The Bulletin is a clever youth’, he had said twenty years before. ‘It will become a dull old man’.” In his will, Archibald made the two bequests by which he is best remembered by Australians: funds for the Archibald Fountain in Sydney’s Hyde Park, which he specified must be designed by a French sculptor, and the Archibald Prize for portraiture, now Australia’s most prestigious art prize. Like Henry Lawson, he is buried in Waverley Cemetery (qv).
Arthur, Chester Alan (October 5, 1829 - November 18, 1886), 21st President of the United States. Arthur was a member of the Republican Party and worked as a lawyer before becoming the 20th Vice-President in the administration of James Garfield. Garfield was shot by Charles Guiteau, a disgruntled office seeker, on July 2, 1881 and died on September 19, with Arthur becoming President, serving until 1885.
Ashton, Julian (January 27, 1851 - April 27, 1942), Australian artist and teacher, known for his support of the Heidelberg School and for his influential art school in Sydney. As a Trustee of the Art Gallery of NSW he championed emerging Australian artists of the Australian Impressionist or Heidelberg School, and the Gallery's decision to collect these works owes much to his influence. He painted a portrait of Sir Henry Parkes (qv) in 1889.
Bakunin, Mikhail (May 30, 1814 - June 13, 1876), Russian anarchist. He was best known as one of the first generation of anarchist philosophers, and has been called one of the ‘fathers of anarchism’.
Barker, Bishop Frederic (March 17, 1808 - April 6, 1882), English-born Anglican Bishop of Sydney. About 195.5cm (6’ 5”) tall and a teetotaller, his name was jokingly given to the largest glass of beer sold in late-19th-Century Sydney. He was a graduate of Jesus College, Cambridge, and British Archbishop John Bird Sumner recommended him for the Diocese of Sydney. Barker was of frail health and was persuaded that “the comparative leisure of a Bishop of Sydney should encourage him to accept”. He arrived in Sydney in 1855 and gave 27 years of service. His achievements include the foundation of Moore Theological College and of The Church Society (now the Home Mission Society) in 1856, and the completion of St Andrew’s Cathedral in 1868. Under his guidance The Clergy Widows and Orphans Fund was established in 1867 and the Clergy Superannuation Fund in 1876. He left Sydney in March, 1881 to visit England, but his health failed there and he never returned, dying soon after. Barker’s Evangelicalism has left a strong imprint on the Sydney Diocese. His wife’s father, John Harden, was a friend of Wordsworth and his circle.
Barker, Tom (1887 - 1970), activist, member of IWW (qv). Born in England in 1887, in New Zealand he became a leader of Auckland’s General Strike of 1913, and was imprisoned on three counts of sedition. On his release he emigrated to Sydney where in 1915 he opposed the AWU (qv) for its refusal to organise workers of colour. He was a strong opponent of the pro-conscription policy of William Morris Hughes (qv). On September 3, 1915 he was arrested for creating and distributing posters which read: “To Arms! Capitalists, Parsons, Politicians, Landlords, Newspaper Editors, and other Stay-at-home Patriots. Your Country needs YOU in the trenches! Workers, follow your masters!! Stay at home.” Convicted, he was released after only three months of a twelve-month sentence, following a series of fires in stores and factories, probably set by his supporters. In 1918 he was deported to Chile and then expelled to Argentina where he became active in the Marine Transport Workers Union. In the USA he worked with Big Bill Haywood. In London, Barker became a Labour member of the St Pancras Council from 1949 to 1959 while caring for his blind wife.
Bartholdi, Frédéric Auguste (August 2, 1834 - October 4, 1904), French sculptor. Born in Colmar, Alsace, France, he studied architecture in Colmar and then went to Paris to further his studies in architecture as well as painting. Bartholdi would go on to become one of the most celebrated of 19th-Century sculptors, famous both in Europe and in North America. The work for which he is most famous is the Statue of Liberty, donated by the government of France in 1886 to the United States. Liberty, or Libertas as she was originally in the Roman pantheon, was presented in 1884 as a gift from the French Grand Orient Temple Masons to the Masons of America in celebration of the centenary of the first Masonic Republic, as much as a gift from France to America.
Barton, Sir Edmund (January 18, 1849 - January 7, 1920), Australian politician and judge, the first Prime Minister of Australia (1901-03) and a founding Justice of the High Court of Australia. He was a member of the Athenaeum Club with such noteworthy Sydneysiders as JF Archibald (qv), Julian Ashton (qv), Sir James Fairfax (qv) and Sir Mungo MacCallum (qv). Barton was a strong advocate of the federation of the Australian colonies, and after the death of Sir Henry Parkes (qv) in 1896 he effectively led the federal movement. Giving up the chance of high office in NSW, he campaigned tirelessly for Federation and was eventually elected Prime Minister, at first keeping his private practice as a barrister until his roles conflicted when he accepted a case against the Crown. Barton, an epicurean and never a ‘cold water man’, was nicknamed ‘Toby Tosspot’. During his tome as prime minister were established the Australian Public Service, the White Australia Policy, women’s right to vote and the High Court (on which he sat, following political retirement, for 17 years interpreting the Constitution he had helped to create). Barton accepted a GCMG (Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George) in 1902 after twice having refused knighthoods before.
Bates, Dame Daisy (Daisy May O’Dwyer; Kabbarli; October 16, 1863 - April 18, 1951), Irish-born Australian journalist and academically untrained anthropologist who lived from 1919 to 1945 among desert Aboriginal people; author of The Passing of the Aborigines (1938). On March 13, 1884 she married legendary Australian horsebreaker and Bulletin poet, Breaker Morant (qv), but kicked him out after he was caught stealing pigs. Or, so it is said. Significantly, they were never divorced. She married again, this time to John Bates, a breaker of wild horses, a bushman and drover, on February 17, 1885 (the bigamous nature of their marriage naturally kept secret during Bates’s lifetime). In August 1933 the Commonwealth Government invited Bates to Canberra to advise on Aboriginal affairs. The next year she was created a Commander of the Order of the British Empire by King George V. Bates’s eccentricities extended beyond her extraordinary life in the desert and included some fascinating confabulations about her own early life. Bates died a national celebrity.
Batho, Tom (Tom ‘the Vag’), co-founder (with Harry Holland, qv), in October, 1893 of the Socialist newspaper.
Beauchamp, Earl (The Right Honourable William Lygon, 7th Earl Beauchamp KG PC; February 20, 1872 - November 15, 1938), British politician who succeeded his father as Earl Beauchamp in 1891, and was mayor of Worcester, UK at age 23. A progressive in his ideas, he was surprised to be offered in May 1899 the post of Governor of NSW, where he became a patron of Henry Lawson and a friend of Victor Daley (qv). Though considered to have been competent at the job, he was unpopular in the colony, and returned to Britain in 1900, where he served in the Liberal Government. In 1931, for political gain, his Tory brother-in-law ‘outed’ him as a homosexual to King George V. Lord Beauchamp is generally thought to have been Evelyn Waugh’s model for Lord Marchmain in the novel Brideshead Revisited.
Bedford, Randolph (July 28, 1868 - July 7, 1941), Australian poet, novelist (True Eyes and the Whirlwind; Snare of Strength; Aladdin and the Boss Cockie), short story writer (‘Fourteen Fathoms by Quetta Rock’; ‘The Language of Animals’) and politician. With Henry Lawson and Victor Daley (qv) et al, he was a member of the elite Dawn and Dusk Club (qv). He worked for a time on Argus (Broken Hill, NSW), and The Age, Melbourne. Much of his poetry appeared in The Bulletin (qv). In 1917 he entered the Queensland Legislative Council, on a platform to secure its abolition (which occurred in 1922). He was later elected as Labor candidate to the Legislative Assembly for Warrego, a seat which he held until his resignation in 1937 to contest the Maranoa seat for the federal House of Representatives. He was defeated, but was again elected to his old seat in the Legislative Assembly.
Beecher, Henry Ward (June 24, 1813 - March 8, 1887), American minister of religion and abolitionist, advocate of women’s suffrage and temperance; younger brother of Uncle Tom’s Cabin novelist Harriet Beecher Stowe (qv).
Bellamy, Edward (March 26, 1850 - May 22, 1898), American author of the utopian novel set in the year 2000, Looking Backward: 2000 - 1887, published in 1888. The book was very influential worldwide, no more so than in Australia among working-class radicals during the 1890s. Australia’s blossoming radical movement at this time had many journals serialising such authors as Thomas Paine, Bellamy, Henry George (qv) and Peter Kropotkin (qv), and books such as Looking Backward, were popular at Australian radical bookshops and lending libraries such as those run in Sydney by WHT McNamara (qv).
Bernhardt, Sarah (October 22, 1844 - March 26, 1923), French stage actress, ‘The Divine Sarah’. She was the eldest surviving illegitimate daughter of Judith van Hard, a Dutch Jewish courtesan known as ‘Youle’. Born in Paris as Henriette Rosine Bernard, after a successful acting career in France she came to London in 1876 where she quickly established herself as the leading actress of the day. On July 28, 1891, she began her season at Her Majesty’s Theatre, Sydney, Australia. Seats sold for up to £2 each; she stayed on the second floor of the Australia Hotel with a menagerie. In 1892 she asked Oscar Wilde (qv) to write her a play, which resulted in Salomé. However, the Lord Chamberlain had the play banned. Bernhardt was also one of the pioneer silent movie actresses, debuting as Hamlet in Le Duel d’Hamlet in 1900. She went on to star in eight motion pictures and two biographical films.
Besant, Annie (October 1, 1847 - September 20, 1933), English social reformer, author (The Political Status of Women; Marriage, As It Was, As It Is, And As It Should Be: A Plea For Reform; The Law Of Population), freedom fighter and worldwide head of the Theosophy movement. She was a member of the National Secular Society, which preached ‘free thought’ and of the Fabian Society, the noted socialist organisation whose members included George Bernard Shaw, Sidney Webb (qv) and Beatrice Webb (qv). In 1877 Besant was convicted of selling birth-control pamphlets in the slums of London. After joining the Social Democratic Federation, she started her own campaigning newspaper, The Link. Besant helped ignite a three-week strike among the exploited employees of the Bryant & May match company (the Matchgirls’ Strike, qv). In this she was aided by HH Champion (qv), Catherine Booth and William Booth (qv) of the Salvation Army; it was the first strike by unorganised workers to gain UK-wide publicity. She was converted to Theosophy after reviewing The Secret Doctrine by Madame Helene Blavatsky (qv) in 1889. In 1893, soon after becoming a member of the Theosophical Society, Besant went to India for the first time. Thereafter she devoted much of her energy not only to the Theosophical Society, but also to India’s freedom and progress, working with Mahatma Gandhi, but in later years the two had a falling out and she opposed him. She started the Home Rule League in India with the aim of obtaining the freedom of the country and reviving the country’s cultural heritage. Annie Besant was also largely responsible for the upbringing of the philosopher Jiddu Krishnamurti, who visited Sydney in 1926. In September, 1894 Mrs Besant gave lectures in Sydney during her Australian tour.
Black, George (February 15, 1854 - July 18, 1936), Scottish-born Australian political activist and parliamentarian for 25 years, eight months; co-founder, with Thomas Walker (qv), WHT McNamara (qv) and others, of the Republican League (1888), member of the ASL (qv) from 1890 to 1894, foundation member of the Australian Labor Party (ALP). In 1873, while frequently drunk on the ship from which he sailed from Scotland, he flirted with a Mrs Duggan. For the affray that followed with Mr Duggan and the ship’s mate whom he hit, Black was thrown in irons. In Sydney, Mrs Duggan left her dullish schoolteacher husband for Black, whom she bore 12 children in the next 18 years. Mrs Duggan (she did not remarry, and Black presented her as his sister-in-law) later complained that she had also miscarried four times when Black had hit her. In June, 1892, when a member of the NSW Legislative Assembly (Seat of West Sydney), Black sued John Norton (qv), editor of Truth (for which Black had himself occasionally written) for libel, arising from articles about the continuing ill-treatment of Mrs Duggan. Black was awarded one farthing in damages (as his reputation was not demed to be worth more), but remained in parliament for many years and is considered one of the founding fathers of the ALP.
Blavatsky, Helena Petrovna (Helena Petrovna Hahn, also Hélène; August 12, 1831 [New Style] - May 8, 1891), best known as Helena Blavatsky or Madame Blavatsky, Ukrainian mystic and the founder of Theosophy. In 1874, Helena met Henry Steel Olcott (qv), lawyer, agricultural expert, and journalist who covered the Spiritualist phenomena. Soon they were living together in the ‘Lamasery’ where her work Isis Unveiled was created.
Bly, Nellie (May 5, 1865 - January 27, 1922), pseudonym of Elizabeth Jane Cochran or Cochrane, a pioneering female investigative journalist. On January 25, 1890 Bly bettered Phileas Fogg’s (qv) fictional Around the World in Eighty Days feat by doing it in just 72 days, six hours, 11 minutes and 14 seconds. Born to Judge Michael Cochran and Mary Jane Kennedy Cochran, part of the large Cochran family of Apollo, Pennsylvania, Elizabeth Cochrane revolutionised journalism for women. In September 1887, she talked her way into the office of John Cockerill, managing editor of Joseph Pulitzer's New York World. Cockerill hired the unknown journalist and gave Bly her first assignment – to be committed to the Women’s Lunatic Asylum on Blackwell’s Island. Presenting herself as an insane woman, Nellie Bly came back from the asylum ten days later with stories of cruel beatings, ice-cold baths and forced, rancid meals. This adventurous and daring stunt propelled Bly into the limelight of the New York newspaper world, and, at only 23, Nellie Bly had become a pioneer of investigative journalism. In 1895 Bly married a millionaire, Robert Seaman, 50 years older than herself, and retired. She lost most of his money after he died and in 1919 tried unsuccessfully to make a comeback.
Boake, Barcroft (March 26, 1866 - May 2, 1892), Australian surveyor, stockman, drover and poet greatly admired by Henry Lawson. All but a few of his poems were published in The Bulletin (qv). Depressive by nature, when he was jilted by a lover and beset by family and financial troubles, he hanged himself from a tree with his stockwhip at Long Bay, Middle Harbour, Sydney. Nearly all his published verse was collected and issued in 1897 by Alfred Stephens (qv).
Boheme, Rose de, see Rose-Soley, Agnes.
Boldrewood, Rolf (b. Thomas Alexander Browne; August 6, 1826 - March 11, 1915), Australian magistrate and author (The Squatter's Dream; Robbery Under Arms; The Miner's Right; Shearing in the Riverina, NSW). Robbery Under Arms (1888), his ‘ripping yarn’ which became a classic in the author’s lifetime, has remained popular and been filmed three times.
Booth, William (April 10, 1829 - August 20, 1912), founder and first general (1878 - 1912) of the Salvation Army. Booth, Annie Besant (qv), William Stead, Catherine Booth, and Henry Hyde Champion (qv) campaigned together in the Matchgirls’ Strike of 1888 (qv). Booth toured Australia in 1891, following which Joseph Perry of the Salvation Army in Australia began the Limelight Department in Melbourne, leading to the production of arguably the first documentary and feature-length films in the world (an example of the latter notably being Soldiers of the Cross). A film of the celebrations of the Federation of Australia in 1901 is held by some to be the world’s first documentary film.
Brady, Edwin (August 7, 1869 - August 22, 1952), author (The Ways of Many Waters; Australia Unlimited; River Rovers), journalist and editor; close friend of Henry Lawson. In 1892 he was editor of the Australian Workman, succeeded by George Black (qv) in 1892. He was also editor of The Dead Bird, later (when threatened by Government legal action) called Bird-o’-Freedom and then renamed The Arrow. He also edited The Grip; Worker; The Native Companion, et al. Brady was one of the founders of the Australian Labor Party. In the Australian Worker of March 26, 1892, either George Black or Sam Rosa (qv) called him “up-to-the-knees-in-blood, barricade fighter Brady”, and Brady was sometimes accused of being a radical bomber, and at other times a police pimp (qv) and agent provocateur. In 1892, while Secretary of the ASL (qv), he was editor of the Australian Workman. In 1895, the day after his divorce from his wife Marion Walsh (married October 30, 1890), he married labor activist Creo Stanley (qv), though this relationship did not last long either. In August, 1901, at Grafton, NSW, he became part-owner (with Miss Susan Penrose) and editor of The Grip (until July, 1903), clashing with the local council and losing advertisers. In Sydney in 1903 he set up the Commonwealth Press Agency. He succeeded George Black as editor of the Labor paper Worker, from August, 1904. Late in 1906 he departed Sydney for Melbourne where he became as involved with left-wing and artistic circles as he had been in his youth in Sydney. There he edited The Native Companion, ran his press agency and was an advertising representative for John Norton’s (qv) Truth. It has been said he ‘discovered’ the writers Katherine Mansfield (qv) and Katharine Susannah Prichard.
Bredt, Bertha, Senior (mother-in-law of Henry Lawson), see McNamara, Bertha.
Brennan, Christopher (November 1, 1870 - October 7, 1932), Australian poet and scholar; lecturer in modern literature at the University of Sydney, later associate professor in German and comparative literature until forced to resign because of his drinking and a marital ‘scandal’. Brennan sometimes collaborated with John Le Gay Brereton (qv). Brennan’s work was and still is highly regarded by the critics (some have argued that he is Australia’s greatest poet), but he failed to find a popular audience. Among others, he was influenced by French poet Stéphane Mallarmé. Bulletin (qv) critic AG Stephens (qv) wrote a biography of him. In his later years he obtained a small Commonwealth literary pension and some teaching at schools. Two daughters predeceased him.
Brentnall, Frederick (June 17,1834 - January 11, 1925), conservative Member of the Queensland Legislative Council; chairman of the board of directors of the Brisbane Telegraph. He opposed the unions and women’s suffrage. However, his wife Elizabeth was Colonial President of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union which, from 1891, lobbied for women’s suffrage. In 1915 Frederick Brentnall referred to the fact that although women could stand for election to Federal Parliament none had been elected: “Does not the fact that the electors have not yet elected one show that they are wiser than the men who passed the Act?”
Brereton, John Le Gay (September 2, 1871 - February 2, 1933), Australian academic and writer, close but sometimes battling friend of Henry Lawson. His prominent physician father (of the same name), although a Quaker in early life, was converted to the doctrines of Emanuel Swedenborg and in Sydney became a leader of the New Jerusalem Church. From 1891 until 1894 the younger JLG Brereton was one of the editors of the Sydney University Arts journal Hermes, in which he wrote an early glowing review of Lawson’s work. Brereton apparently shocked his former mentor, Mungo MacCallum (qv), when he devoted a lecture to a frank discussion of the homosexual themes apparent in Walt Whitman’s Leaves of Grass. In 1921 he was appointed Professor of English Literature at the Sydney University, after having been that institution's chief librarian. Mary Cameron, later Gilmore (qv), introduced Henry Lawson to him at her place at Enmore some time after September in 1894, the year Brereton finished studies at Sydney University. At the time that Lawson befriended him, ‘Jack’ Brereton was a disciple of Annie Besant (qv). Brereton was a Nature lover and vegetarian, the first president of the Fellowship of Australian Writers (1929) and, with Bertha Lawson (qv), editor of Henry Lawson, By His Mates (1931).
Brooks, Emma, Henry Lawson’s Aunt Emma; sister of Louisa Lawson. Henry Lawson lived with her at different times, mostly in and around Millers Point, Dawes Point and North Sydney, and she was the recipient of some of his extant letters. However, there seems to be little or no record of association between Lawson and Aunt Emma from the time that she hurriedly left the Henry and Bertha Lawson home in 14 College St, Wellington, New Zealand on December 9, 1897.
Broomfield, Fred (April 2, 1860 - May 22, 1941), English-born Australian writer, friend of Henry Lawson and prominent co-member with him of the Dawn and Dusk Club (qv) which formed around Victor Daley (qv); some meetings were held in his Darlinghurst home. Before coming to Sydney in the 1880s, where he gained employment as an accountant, Broomfield worked for the Kyneton (Victoria) Guardian and as a correspondent for the Melbourne Age. Flamboyant, bohemian Broomfield was a contributor to The Bulletin (qv) and at one time worked there as a sub-editor. Tradition has it that it was Broomfield who accepted Henry Lawson’s first Bulletin contribution. He defended Lawson in Henry Lawson and his Critics (1930).
Browning, Robert (May 7, 1812 - December 12, 1889), English poet and playwright.
Buckley, William (1780 - January 1, 1856), more commonly just ‘Buckley’, an Australian convict who escaped and became famous for living in an Aboriginal tribal community for 32 years. On December 27, 1803, Buckley and two other convicts cut loose a boat and escaped from custody. For the next 32 years he continued to live among the Watourong tribe on the Bellarine Peninsula, Victoria. On July 6, 1835 he decided to return to European society; wearing kangaroo skins and carrying Aboriginal weapons, he walked into John Batman’s camp at Indented Head. In September of the same year, he was granted a pardon by Lieutenant-Governor Arthur. In 1836, Buckley was given the position of interpreter to the natives, and as a guide for Captain Foster Fyans, among others, his knowledge of Aboriginal language was put to good use. However, by late 1837, he had become disenchanted with his new way of life – and the people around him – and left for Van Diemen’s Land where he remained for the next 19 years. He died in 1856 at the age of 75, following a cart accident near Hobart. According to reports, Buckley was somewhere between 193cm (6’ 4”) and 200cm (6’7”) in height.
Burns, Rabbie (Robert Burns; January 25, 1759 - July 21, 1796), the best known of the poets who have written in Scots. Burns also collected folk songs from across Scotland, often revising or adapting them. His poem (and song) ‘Auld Lang Syne’ is often sung at Hogmanay (New Year’s Eve), and ‘Scots Wha Hae’ served for a long time as an unofficial national anthem of the country. Other poems and songs of Burns that remain well known today across the world include ‘A Red, Red Rose’, ‘An’ For A’ That’ (‘A Man’s a Man for All That’), ‘To a Louse’, and ‘To a Mouse’. He alienated many of his best friends by expressing too freely his sympathy with the French Revolution, and the then unpopular advocates of reform at home. His health began to give way; he became prematurely aged, and fell into fits of despondency; the habits of intemperance, to which he had always been more or less addicted, increased Within a short time of his death, money started pouring in from all over Scotland to support his widow and children.
Byers, Isabel, Henry Lawson’s household companion, or landlady, from 1903 to 1921. They met each other in a Darlinghurst boarding-house owned by a Mrs Colman.
Cadogan, Rose, see Summerfield, Rose.
Cambridge, Ada (November 21, 1844 - July 19, 1926), Anglo-Australian hymnist, poet and author of 25 novels (A Marked Man; The Three Miss Kings; Not All in Vain).
Cameron, Mary, see Gilmore, Dame Mary.
Carboni, Raffaello (December 15, 1817 - October 24, 1875), Italian linguist, writer, traveller, composer and gold-digger, trusted lieutenant at the Eureka Stockade (qv) in charge of the diggers who spoke European languages. In Italy he was imprisoned five times for his patriotic and radical activities.
Carrington, Lord (Charles Robert Wynn-Carrington, 1st Marquess of Lincolnshire; May 16, 1843 - June 13, 1928), British Liberal politician and aristocrat, Governor of NSW, 1885-90. Following this he was Lord Chamberlain (UK) 1892-1895, and President of the Board of Agriculture (1905-1911). He was created Earl Carrington and Viscount Wendover in 1895 and Marquess of Lincolnshire in 1912. He was, according to his obituary in The Times, “all his life an advanced Liberal, even a Radical, in spite of old-fashioned prejudices”.
Carruthers, Sir Joseph (December 21, 1857 - September 15, 1932), lawyer, investor, Premier of NSW 1904-07. Before Federation Carruthers had been a member of George Reid’s (qv) Free Trade ministry. He was a strong opponent of federal Protectionist policies and clashed with Alfred Deakin (qv) on this issue and on the transfer of land for the Federal Capital Territory. Carruthers was also aligned with Reid in introducing Empire Day in 1905. In 1898, when he was Secretary for Lands, John Norton (qv) won a libel action brought by Carruthers. He was one of ten NSW delegates to the pre-Federation second National Australasian Convention. While Premier, his loose associations with William Willis (qv) and Paddy Crick (qv) led to strong allegations (largely by Norton) that Carruthers was involved in bribery. The Royal Commission into the Department of Lands scandal reported that “nothing in the evidence … implicated Mr Carruthers”. While Leader of the Government in the NSW Upper House in 1922-25, Carruthers was a fierce opponent of Jack Lang (qv) who proposed to abolish that chamber.
Chamberlain, Joseph (July 8, 1836 - July 2, 1914), British statesman, Colonial Secretary, regarded as one of the most important British politicians of the late-19th Century and early-20th Century; father of Neville Chamberlain (1869 - 1940). In 1900 Alfred Deakin (qv) travelled to London to oversee the passage of the Australian Federation bill through the Imperial Parliament, and took part in the negotiations with Joseph Chamberlain.
Champion, HH (Henry Hyde Champion; January 22, 1859 - April 30, 1928), British Christian Socialist social reformer. He was the first to publish a book by George Bernard Shaw (Cashel Byron’s Profession, 1886). In the same year he was indicted for sedition in connection with the Trafalgar Square riots, but gained acquittal. In 1888, Champion joined with Annie Besant (qv), Catherine Booth and William Booth (qv) in the Matchgirls’ Strike (qv) against the Bryant & May Company. In 1889 Champion emerged with Ben Tillett (qv), Tom Mann (qv) and John Burns as one of the leaders of the London Dock Strike, which was supported by Australian unionists with donations of about £30,000. Disillusioned with his colleagues by 1894, he left the Independent Labour Party and emigrated to Australia where he stayed until his death. Like The Bulletin of Sydney, his journal, Champion, published from Melbourne from June 22, 1895, was a significant influence on culture and radical politics of the time. He was supportive of Henry Lawson, but even-handed, and wrote in a review of In the Days When the World was Wide and Other Verses (1896): “The proletarian predominates over the poet, and there is much froth yet to be blown off the top of this new-drawn pewter pot of Parnassus brew”. He unsuccessfully stood for the seat of South Melbourne for the Victorian Legislative Assembly, following which he became a leader writer for The Age. He also published (1899 - 1921) a literary journal, Book Lover and founded a literary agency. His obituary in The Times of May 2, 1928, said: “Champion was an exceedingly able writer and the wielder of a caustic pen. He had, however, the temperament of an aristocrat and an inborn sympathy with Conservative traditions, both of which prevented him from really understanding and sympathizing with the minds of the masses whom he endeavoured to lead.”
Clarke Brothers, The, Thomas, James and John Clarke of Monaro, NSW, bushrangers (qv), or more accurately, cattle duffers and horse thieves. They killed four men at Jinden Station and were also involved in the murder of a policeman. Ambushed by police in a hut on April 26, 1867, they were tried, found guilty and hanged on June 25.
Cleveland, (Stephen) Grover (March 18, 1837 - June 24, 1908), 22nd (1885-1889) and 24th (1893-1897) President of the USA, and the only president to serve two non-consecutive terms. He was the only Democrat elected to the presidency in the era of Republican political domination between the American Civil War and the election of Woodrow Wilson in 1912.
Coghlan, Dr Iza, one of the first two women to graduate in medicine from Sydney University (1893), the other being Dr Grace Robinson. Coghlan was a graduate of Sydney High School.
Coghlan, Sir Timothy (June 9, 1856 - April 30, 1926), statistician and public servant. Government Statistician in NSW (1886-1905) and NSW Agent-General in London (1905-26). He initiated the New South Wales Year-Books and in 1918 published his major work Labour and Industry in Australia from the first Settlement in 1788 to the Establishment of the Commonwealth in 1901. He was knighted in 1914 and created KCMG in 1918.
Collins, Wilkie (January 8, 1824 - September 23, 1889), English novelist (The Moonstone), playwright, and writer of short stories.
Collins, William Whitehouse (September 4, 1853 - April 12, 1923), English-born rationalist and freethought lecturer, activist and parliamentarian, active in Australia and New Zealand in the late-19th and early-20th Centuries, who worked with Annie Besant (qv) in London before becoming a leading light of progressive activism in Sydney. Collins campaigned for social reforms in the prisons and worked for the abolition of capital punishment. He was vigorously active in the movements for the eight-hour working day, veterans’ pensions, education, tenants’ rights, deaf and mute children, and women’s rights, especially in cases of divorce. Before arriving in Sydney in 1890, he was Vice-President of the New Zealand Freethought Association.
Conrad, Joseph (December 3, 1857 - August 3, 1924) Polish author born Józef Teodor Nalecz Konrad Korzeniowski in Berdyczów (Berdychiv), then Poland under Russian rule, now Ukraine. He lived an adventurous life, becoming involved in gunrunning and political conspiracy, which he later fictionalised in his novel The Arrow of Gold. In 1878, after a failed suicide attempt, Conrad took service on his first British ship. He learned English before the age of 21, and in 1886 gained both his Master Mariner’s certificate and British citizenship. He first arrived in England at the port of Lowestoft, Suffolk, and lived later in London and near Canterbury, Kent. In 1894 he left the sea to become an English-language author. His first novel, Almayer’s Folly, set on the east coast of Borneo, was published in 1895. Many of his early novels are set on board ships. His novel Nostromo is a study of revolution in South America, while The Secret Agent and Under Western Eyes are among the first modern novels to treat the subjects of terrorism and espionage. He also wrote Heart of Darkness (1899) and Lord Jim (1900). He was in Sydney as skipper of the Otago in 1888 and sailed out of Sydney Heads on the same day in May as the controversial Afghan also left.
Cowper, The Very Reverend William Macquarie, MA (July 3, 1810 - June 14, 1902), the first Australian-born Anglican clergyman, Dean of St Andrew’s Cathedral, Sydney, 1858 - 1902. Archdeacon of Sydney from 1858. Minister of the Ecclesiastical District of St Andrew, from 1869. In March, 1856, Bishop F Barker (qv) appointed him acting principal of the new Moore Theological College at Liverpool. Cowper had Governor Lachlan Macquarie (qv) among his godparents.
Coxey, Jacob (sometimes known as General Coxey; April 16, 1854 - May 18, 1951), socialist American politician and activist, who twice led ‘Coxey’s Army’ (officially named ‘the Commonwealth of Christ’), bands of unemployed men who marched on Washington, DC in 1894 and 1914 to demand that Congress appropriate money to create jobs for the unemployed.
Crane, Stephen (November 1, 1871 - June 5, 1900), American writer (The Red Badge of Courage, 1895). In 1897, Crane settled in England, where he was friendly with writers Joseph Conrad (qv) and Henry James, and had his career promoted by Edward Garnett (qv). Crane died of tuberculosis aged 28, in Badenweiler, Germany.
Crick, William Patrick (Paddy Crick; February 10, 1862 - August 28, 1908), colourful, hard-drinking solicitor, politician and newspaperman of Sydney. Crick was a founder (with William Nicholas Willis, qv, and Adolphus George Taylor, qv) of Truth, a scurrilous but popular journal (first issue, mid-August, 1890). A Member of the NSW Legislative Assembly from 1889 and Cabinet Minister from 1899 - 1904, Crick was expelled and found guilty of corruption while Minister for Lands. He resigned to avoid expulsion from Parliament in 1906 (there had been an earlier expulsion, on November 13, 1890; re-elected December 6, 1890). Crick was a past master of what might be called ‘larrikin politics’ at a time when NSW politicians were not known for mincing words. Norton v Crick (1894) 15 LR (NSW) 172 remains one of the most interesting court cases of 19th-Century Sydney. Crick was NSW Postmaster-General from September 14, 1899 to February 28,1901 and Secretary for Lands from April 11, 1901 to June 14, 1904.
Crouch, Joseph James, British conman. On September 22, 1890 was published the first edition of the Australian Workman, official organ of the TLC (qv) in Sydney (a founding organisation of the Australian Labor Party), following the demise of the Australian Radical almost exactly a year earlier. The first editor was Rev. Dr (Theodore) Oswald Keating, MA, DD, LLD, who had just stepped off a clipper ship from Britain in July and had some writings published in Truth’s earliest numbers. The proprietors of Australian Workman were impressed with him and under the circumstances of the Maritime Strike of 1890, pleased to have a clergyman’s name on the masthead. By the end of October, the ‘clergyman’ was suing the newspaper for £5 for wrongful dismissal. Dr Keating was in fact Joseph James Crouch, a forger and conman who had impersonated clergy of various denominations for thirty years, been imprisoned a number of times, and robbed and abandoned a widow he had married for money in England. In the USA in 1881 he had conned many, including the prominent American clergyman Rev. Henry Ward Beecher (qv), who lent him money as well as his pulpit. He could speak fluently in several languages, including Hebrew. He also plied his craft in Canada, and in Dublin, Ireland he enjoyed a reputation as a brilliant Protestant preacher. In Kilmainham Gaol, he was the ‘guest’ of the Governor, who had had him for dinner as a guest of honour just a fortnight before. Australian Workman was first published from strike headquarters at the Australian Coffee Palace, Castlereagh St; it was pretty much controlled by the ASL (qv) until 1894. It ended in 1897.
Cullen, Sir William (The Honourable Sir William Portus Cullen, KCMG, LLD; May 28, 1855 - April 6, 1935), lawyer, Lieutenant-Governor of NSW from 1911 to 1930; Chief Justice of NSW from 1910 to 1925. He entered politics in 1891 when he was elected a Member of the Legislative Assembly for Camden. He was knighted in 1911 and appointed KCMG in the following year. From 1914 he was Chancellor of Sydney University for the then record term of twenty years. Several times he acted as governor during the absence of governors from the State or between appointments.
Daley, Victor (c. September 5, 1858 - December 29, 1905), Irish-born Australian journalist and poet, best known for the poem ‘Eureka’, about the Eureka Stockade (qv). In 1900 he was probably Australia’s best-selling poet. He was published (sometimes under the signature of ‘Creeve Roe’, a name adapted from the Gaelic meaning ‘Red Branch’) in such magazines as Punch and The Bulletin (qv). He said that as a child in Ireland he made bullets for his Fenian relatives. For a time, like Harry Holland, he worked on Queanbeyan Times. By nature puritanical, he shrank from ‘evil language, gross stories and violence of any kind’, but the other side of his character was rather wild – he was also a hard-drinking bohemian, and the circle of heavily imbibing artists and writers (including Henry Lawson) who formed around him from September, 1898 were known as the Dawn and Dusk Club (qv), deriving its name from At Dawn and Dusk, the first of Daley’s many books, produced under the guidance of AG Stephens (qv). Suffering from tuberculosis, Daley stayed with Edwin Brady (qv) at Grafton in 1902. Late in 1905, Daley died of that disease at Waitara, Sydney. He had earlier told Albert Dorrington that “he was getting into training for a big fight about Christmas time”. Daley was buried at Waverley Cemetery (qv), Sydney.
Dawson, Anderson (July 16, 1863 - July 20, 1910), Australian politician. His was the first elected labor party or parliamentary socialist government in the world and he was the Premier of Queensland, Australia for just one week in 1899. In April, 1904 Dawson was given the portfolio of Minister for Defence in the world’s first national Labor government under Prime Minister Chris Watson (qv). The Federal electoral division of Dawson is named after him.
Day, Medway (February 24, 1838 - July 8, 1905), English-born Australian labor journalist and Baptist minister; chairman of the South Australian Baptist Association, 1870-71; nicknamed ‘Judgement Day’ by fellow journalists. Day had been leader writer for Register in Adelaide, editor of Voice and became editor of Australian Worker in 1894. Although strongly influenced by the writings of Henry George (qv), he eschewed the epithet ‘Single Taxer’, although in 1892 he was editor of the Single Tax League’s paper, Pioneer. The Australian Dictionary of Biography says that “He so strongly championed the co-operative village settlements on the Murray that the Bulletin could say they were ‘largely of his making’.” A strong proponent of the co-operative movement, in the late-1890s he was manager of the Trades’ Council Co-operative Store in Sydney.
De Guinney, Ernest, self-styled Russian aristocrat-turned-nihilist who tramped with Henry Lawson and Jim Gordon (qv) in north-western NSW during the Summer of 1892-3; Lawson thought he was “a griper” and the mateship was short lived. When he tricked Henry into drinking water from a tank, one that had a dead carpet snake in it, at Kelly’s Camp Bore, that was the last straw for Lawson. In 1892 De Guinney had written in New Australia, “If we succeed – we’ll achieve a glorious reformation. If we fail – but there, we’re not going to fail …” but it was another eleven years before he himself went to New Australia (qv). During the 1890s he worked as a seaman and in 1896 shot dead an officer on his ship, but a New York Grand Jury decided it had been self defence and refused to file a bill. He spent just three months in 1903 at Cosme (qv), when the colony was already on its last legs, and later wrote bitterly about his experience, saying the commune was run by a selfish clique and full of sexual immorality. Interestingly, Gavin Souter (1968) gives evidence that De Guinney himself was not above sexual escapades at Cosme, and might have been a thief.
Deakin, Alfred (August 3, 1856 - October 7, 1919), Australian lawyer, journalist and politician, a leader of the movement for Australian Federation and later second Prime Minister of Australia; he held that post three times between 1903 and 1910. He was active in the Australian Natives Association and was also a lifelong Spiritualist, with associations with the Theosophical Society and the Australian Church of Rev. Charles Strong (qv). In 1900 Deakin travelled to London to oversee the passage of the federation bill through the Imperial Parliament, and took part in the negotiations with Joseph Chamberlain (qv), the Colonial Secretary, nearly derailing the process. In 1901 he was elected to the first Federal Parliament as MP for Ballarat (Victoria), and became Attorney-General in the ministry headed by Edmund Barton (qv). Nicknamed ‘Affable Alfred’ by those of his contemporaries who liked him, he is regarded as a founding father by the modern Liberal Party. In 1906, Deakin, a keen cyclist, became the first and probably only Prime Minister to get a summons for riding on the footpath. Deakin was interested in the occult and Spiritualism, believing that he channelled John Bunyan, and writing A New Pilgrim's Progress.Deeming, Frederick (Deeming the Demon Murderer; July 30?, 1842 - May 23, 1892), sailor, hanged in Melbourne for the murders of several women and his own children. Much of the public of Australia was convinced he was Jack the Ripper. He was arrested in the small Western Australian town of Southern Cross on March 11, 1892. Deeming then became a suspect in London’s Ripper case; there were unsubstantiated reports that samples of handwriting from ‘Jack’ and from Deeming were written by the same person. The trial began as scheduled on April 28, 1892. Deeming’s lawyers were Alfred Deakin (qv), later Prime Minister of Australia, and William Forlonge. Although Deeming claimed that his dead mother had ordered him to commit the murders, and despite the fact that he was probably mentally ill, (as Deakin believed), the jury needed very little time to reject Deeming’s plea of insanity and declare him guilty. Twelve thousand people cheered outside Melbourne Gaol when they heard that his execution was done.
Dennis, CJ (‘Den’; Clarence Michael James Stanislaus Dennis; September 7, 1876 - June 22, 1938), Australian writer and poet (Songs of a Sentimental Bloke). CJ Dennis was born in Auburn, South Australia where his father was a publican, and his poetry was probably a rebellion against his upbringing by maiden aunts, who dressed him (according to biographer Alec Chisholm) in a starchy suit, Eton collar, patent leather shoes, and so on. He was even obliged to carry a cane. The local boys considered ‘Clarence’ quite a ‘sissy’. Dennis never called himself ‘Clarence’, preferring ‘CJ’ or ‘Den’. His father gave him a job but he ‘shot through’ to Broken Hill, where there was no work for a lad with a weak physique. The legend goes he sent a telegram to his father “Send five pounds. Gone to Broken Hill”, whereupon his father returned a telegram: “Sending nothing. Go to Hell.” He went to Adelaide, where he helped launch the satirical weekly The Gadfly. 1908 he went to Melbourne, lived in a tent in the Dandenong hills outside the city. In 1914 Dennis wrote his humorous masterpiece, The Songs of a Sentimental Bloke, a long narrative poem, or ‘verse novel’ that has become an Australian classic. Rejected by a Melbourne publisher, in the next year it was published by Angus and Robertson; it was a roaring success (selling 66,000 copies in its first 18 months), revealing as it did to Australians their own slang and culture of the common people. The book was hugely popular with homesick Aussie troops fighting in the French trenches of World War I. His next book, The Glugs of Gosh, was a popular mixture of satire and fantasy masquerading as a book for children. Prime Minister Joseph Lyons called Dennis “the Robert Burns of Australia”, a term that has often also been applied to Henry Lawson.
Desmond, Arthur (c. 1859? - 1926?), a leader of the ASB (qv). Possibly born in New Zealand, he stood in 1884 for Parliament in the seat of Hawke’s Bay, NZ, where he was a Maori rights campaigner and follower of Henry George (qv). By October 1892 he was in Sydney as a political activist, newspaper editor and writer, occasionally published in The Bulletin (qv). He edited and published the journal Justice for the ASB, as well as a newsletter on the banking collapse of 1893, Hard Cash, printed at a secret press located in a cave near West’s Bush at Paddington. He was a leading figure in radical political circles in Sydney for two or three years, associated with William Morris Hughes (qv) and Jack Lang (qv) who helped him “turn the mangle” to print Hard Cash “in the front room of a cottage in Rose Street, Darlington” (Lang). For a brief time Desmond was an influence on Henry Lawson’s poetry, eg, ‘A Leader of the Future’ (Worker, 1893). In December, 1893, an editorial in The Times (Wellington, New Zealand, where Henry Lawson was living at the time) surveyed the career of Arthur Desmond in Sydney, condemning him. Lawson came to his defence (in Fair Play, under the pen-name ‘Australian Exile’), more for Desmond’s courage in stating unpopular views than for the views themselves. In June, 1894 he was proposed as a Labor candidate but declined to stand, preferring to campaign for JC Watson (qv), who was elected. In 1896 Desmond published (in Chicago, USA) a Nietzschean, racist, misogynistic, anti-Semitic book he had apparently written in Sydney, The survival of the fittest, or, The philosophy of power (reprinted in London and Melbourne as Might is Right). It was a fierce polemic which, it is said, went to numerous editions internationally; Leo Tolstoy argued against it in What is Art? (1898), and it influenced some of the early Wobblies (qv) and, a century later, some Satanist and right-wing libertarians. Claims have been made that its philosophy of ruthlessness influenced Kaiser Wilhelm, Theodore Roosevelt, Gabriele D’Annunzio and WM Hughes (qv), all of whom were supposed to have read it. Desmond, who once served two months hard labor for chalking on a bank “Going Bung”, left the ASB and involved himself in the establishment of a paper called The New Order, with which Billy Hughes and William Holman (qv) were also associated. He later joined the Labor Party. After a brief, mysterious and peripatetic career in Australia, Desmond is believed to have spent time in America and Britain, and is also reported to have travelled to Manchuria and South Africa, dying in Mexico in 1914, or perhaps in Palestine in 1918 (serving with that great imperialist, Viscount General Edmund Allenby). Desmond, or ‘Ragnar Redbeard’ as he commonly called himself in print (in London he ran a periodical called Redbeard’s Review which ran for about four years), was also said to be alive and running a bookshop in Chicago in the 1920s and some believe he died in 1926. His end is as mysterious as his beginning.
Dibbs, George (October 12, 1834 - August 5, 1904; Sir George from July, 1892), three times Protectionist Premier of NSW, strong opponent of women’s suffrage. In opposing Sir Henry Parkes’s (qv) Bill in 1891, Dibbs said “the bulk of women ... are utterly incapable of performing the duties of men”. He opposed Federation as not being in the financial interests of NSW, and because Sydney would not be the national capital.
Disraeli, Benjamin (December 21, 1804 - April 19, 1881), British statesman and literary figure. He served in government for three decades, twice as prime minister (February - December 1868; February 1874 - April 1880). When his maiden parliamentary speech was heckled he ended with the words, “though I sit down now, the time will come when you will hear me.” He was elevated to the House of Lords in 1876 when Queen Victoria made him Earl of Beaconsfield. His popular nickname was ‘Dizzy’.
Dole, Sanford (April 23, 1844 - June 9, 1926), politician and jurist of Hawaii. He served as the first and only president from 1894 to 1900. During Dole’s period of authority, every nation that recognised the Kingdom of Hawaii also recognised the Republic of Hawaii.
Donnelly, Ignatius (November 3, 1831 - January 1, 1901), American congressman and author of utopian and fortean literature, especially on Atlantis. One of the most prominent 19th-Century Atlantist authors (he made his fortune with Atlantis: the Antediluvian World) Donnelly was an idiosyncratic and somewhat quixotic member of the USA Congress whose writings, particularly the utopian sci-fi novel, Cæsar’s Column: A Story of the Twentieth Century, profoundly influenced the working class in pre-Federation Australia, with William Lane (qv) a particular enthusiast. On November 18, 1893, in Worker, a journalist calling himself ‘Murphy’ pilloried and compared Henry Lawson to Donnelly for his blood-and-thunder political article, ‘A Leader of the Future’. Perhaps ironically, Donnelly died in Minneapolis on the first day of the century, January 1, 1901, the very day that Australia’s Federation took effect. Donnelly is perhaps better known for his The Great Cryptogram: Francis Bacon’s Cipher in Shakespeare’s Plays about an alleged code in Shakespeare’s work that ‘reveals’ that Francis Bacon wrote much of The Bard’s work.
Donovan, James, a co-founder with Thomas Walker (qv) et al of the ASA (qv).
D’Oyly Carte, Richard (May 3, 1844 - April 3, 1901), British theatrical impresario remembered largely for operatic and Gilbert and Sullivan productions in London.
Dwyer, John (March 4, 1856 - February 1, 1934), English-born Australian anarchist labor activist, who immigrated to Australia in 1888. From the early 1890s he was a leader of Sydney’s ASB (qv) (with JA Andrews, qv, Arthur Desmond, qv, et al). Originally a London docks foreman, he emigrated to Australia in 1888 and became a boarding-house manager, a skill that was useful in the establishment of the ASB ‘barracks’ (doss houses or dormitories) for the unemployed. He was imprisoned after the Sydney Anarchy Trial of June, 1894. Judge Innes, who had seen the five defendants back-tracking, blaming each other and sometimes disavowing their radical principles, commented that the libel in question was not the only one he had seen in the journal Justice, of which he had read several copies. He then said it was “not desirable to stir up class hatreds in the community” and sentenced them all to terms of hard labour. An autodidact, Dwyer was interested in temperance, Darwinism and occult Spiritualism, and he became a member of the Independent Order of Good Templars, and the Theosophical Society. In 1897 anarchists JA Andrews (qv), Joseph Schellenberg (qv) and John Dwyer founded on their own initiative an Isis Lodge in Sydney and attempted its affiliation with the Theosophical Society in London. By 1900 the ASB had mostly abandoned its street-theatre radicalism, an early example of Situationism, and was mainly running boarding-houses, from which Dwyer derived a meagre income. He also tried to organise co-operative ventures for the unemployed, schemes which all failed. In his last 13 years he lived in obscurity in Sydney’s western suburbs, in the home of one of his children.
Dymock, William (May 11, 1861 - October 5, 1900), prominent Australian bookseller, of Sydney. Dymock was buried at Waverley Cemetery (qv), Sydney.
Dyson, Edward (March, 1865 - August 22, 1931), Australian author (Below and On Top) and poet (Men of Australia; Of the True Endeavour; The Old Whim Horse), closely associated with The Bulletin (qv). He figured to a minor degree in the ‘Up the Country’ poetic contest of Paterson (qv) and Lawson. Edward Dyson was an older brother of fellow Bulletin regular, the artist and cartoonist Will Dyson (September, 1880 - January 21, 1938), radical Australian artist and cartoonist associated with The Bulletin (qv) in its heyday.
Edmond, James, (April 21, 1859 - March 21, 1933) Scottish-born Australian journalist who took over editorship of The Bulletin from JF Archibald (qv) in 1903. Edmond opposed Archibald’s anti-feminism. ‘Archy’ said of him, “Jimmy's the only man I know who can get fun out of a balance-sheet”.
Edward I of England (June 17, 1239 - July 7, 1307), king popularly known as ‘Longshanks’ because of his 6’ 2” frame, and the ‘Hammer of the Scots’ (his tombstone, in Latin, read, Hic est Edwardvs Primus Scottorum Malleus, ‘Here lies Edward I, Hammer of the Scots’); achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who kept Scotland under English domination.
Engels, Friedrich (November 28, 1820 - August 5, 1895), German political philosopher. With Karl Marx (qv) he developed communist theory, co-authoring The Communist Manifesto (1848) and also edited several volumes of Das Kapital after Marx’s death.
Fairfax, Sir James Reading (October 17, 1834 - March 28, 1919), newspaper magnate, proprietor of the John Fairfax company, publishers of the Sydney Morning Herald (the oldest Australian newspaper, having been continuously published since 1831). His father, John Fairfax (b. October 25, 1804) was proprietor of the Herald from February 8, 1841 until his death on June 16, 1877. Sir James Fairfax was a religious man and President of the YMCA; he controlled the company from the death of his father until his own, 42 years later.
Fleming, Chummy (John Fleming; April 3, 1863 - January 25, 1950), English-born Australian unionist, agitator for the unemployed, and prominent anarchist in Melbourne. He enjoyed a good relationship with the Governor-General, John Adrian Louis Hope, 7th Earl of Hopetoun (qv), who lent him money to build a house, which Chummy duly called ‘Hopetoun’. A bootmaker by trade, ‘Chummy’ (the nickname at the time meant simply ‘Englishman’) was instrumental in starting May Day celebrations and marches in Melbourne, some of the earliest in the world. He was a member of the Melbourne Anarchist Club which formed on May 1, 1886, the first formal anarchist organisation in Australia, a member of the Melbourne Anarchist Club from 1886-90 and there became friends with Sam Rosa (qv) and Jack Andrews (qv). In 1899 he was elected to the Trades Hall Eight Hours Day committee and to the executive of Trades Hall Council. For more than fifty years he was a regular speaker at the Queens Wharf and Yarra Bank (Melbourne) Sunday speakers’ corners. In 1889, Fleming helped form a Melbourne lodge of the Knights of Labor (qv) in Melbourne, as well as being elected to the Eight Hours Committee. In 1907 he invited Emma Goldman (qv) to tour Australia and had raised money for her fare but her plans to come in March, 1908 were curtailed by problems with her love affair with Dr Ben Reitman. For every year from 1887 he commemorated in Melbourne the execution of the Haymarket Martyrs (qv).
Flying Pieman, The (William Francis King; 1807 - 1873), celebrated Sydney eccentric known for his long-distance walking. On one occasion, the story goes, he balanced a 40kg live goat and a 5.4kg weight and walked from the old Talbot Inn, Brickfield Hill, Sydney to the Woolpack Inn, Parramatta, in less than seven hours. It has been said he sold his pies at Circular Quay to passengers boarding the ferry, then would meet them when they disembarked at Parramatta some 25km away. Twice he beat the Sydney to Windsor mail coach on foot.
Fogg, Phileas, fictional character in the novel Around the World in Eighty Days by Jules Verne (qv).
Fourier, Charles (François Marie Charles Fourier; François Fourier; April 7, 1772 - October 10, 1837), French philosopher, economist and utopian socialist. Fourier inspired the founding of the communist community called La Réunion near present-day Dallas, Texas as well as several other communities within the USA such as the Wisconsin Phalanx. Fourier was the son of a linen draper, and was born at Besançon, France. After working as a haberdasher’s clerk, and a merchant, he was drafted into the army in 1796, but after two years was discharged as an invalid. In 1808 he published a book about his plans for the reconstruction of society, but it sold less than a dozen copies. However, after six years, a copy of it fell into the hands of a wealthy man named Monsieur Just Muiron, who read it avidly and decided to become the author’s patron. Between the years 1816-21 Fourier lived in the country and produced the bulk of his writings. In 1822 he tried again to sell his books, but without success. In 1825 he went to Lyons and worked as a cashier at only 50 pounds a year. He later got another patron, Madame Clarissa Vigoureux. His ideas were utopian, envisioning hierarchies of satisfied workers doing what they loved doing. He was a believer in the passionate good and ‘attractive’ labour, and he invented ‘Gastrosophy’, the philosophy of food. Hundreds of communes called ‘phalansteries’ sprouted in the mid-19th Century, celebrating his principles and vision.
Fox, Sir William KCMG (January 20, 1812 - June 23, 1893), Premier of New Zealand on four occasions in the 19th Century, while New Zealand was still a colony. He helped shape the Constitution Act of 1852, which established home rule for New Zealand.
Franklin, Miles (Stella Martin Sara Miles Franklin; October 14, 1879 - September 19, 1954), Australian author, who was ‘discovered’ by Henry Lawson. The unknown teenage Franklin wrote to the famous Lawson and he replied from Chaplin Cottage, Charles St, North Sydney on December 29, 1899 (beginning “Mr M. Franklin, Dear sir ...” and an apology for his tardy reply, saying “Send your yarn and I'll read it and tell you what I think of it”. Young Miss Franklin had obviously written to the great Lawson hoping he would read her novel and was in no position to arrange anything. Ensuing Lawson correspondence with Franklin, David Scott Mitchell (qv) and George Robertson (qv) shows Lawson’s enthusiasm for the novel (My Brilliant Career) and his efforts to have it published, at a time that he himself was feeling the pangs of destitution. Franklin was born at Talbingo, NSW and grew up in the Brindabella Valley. Her most famous book was originally called My Brilliant? Career and Franklin was extremely distressed when the publisher removed the question mark; Lawson’s preface also aggrieved her as she wanted to maintain a disguise as a “bald headed steer of the sterner sex”, believing that that if people thought she was a man the book would receive better reviews, but the reviews tended to be very good, as did public acceptance. On publication of My Brilliant Career Franklin became a celebrity but despite critical acclaim, Franklin was only paid £25 for her efforts. It is believed that Banjo Paterson (qv), who was smitten with her, proposed marriage. In 1906, Franklin moved to the USA and undertook secretarial work for Alice Henry, another Australian, at the National Women’s Trade Union League in Chicago, and co-edited the league's magazine, Life and Labor. In her will she bequeathed her estate to establish a now-prestigious annual literary award known as The Miles Franklin Award.
Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria (December 18, 1863 - June 28, 1914). His assassination by Gavrilo Princip on June 28, 1914 in Sarajevo, Austrian-annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina, precipitated the Austrian declaration of war against Serbia which triggered World War I. Franz Ferdinand was nephew of the Emperor Franz Josef I of Austria and next in line to the crown. Franz Ferdinand arrived in Sydney, Australia on May 17, 1893 on board the Austrian warship Kaiser Elisabeth on a world tour when he was 29. Within 24 hours of his arrival he left Sydney by train for Nyngan, a frontier town in the west of NSW, accompanied by Francis Bathurst Suttor (qv), Member for Bathurst and Minister for Public Instruction in the Government of Sir George Dibbs (qv), and Herr Alfred Pelldram, the German Consul-General. He spent most of his time in Australia hunting in the Nyngan and Narromine districts, but also travelled to Moss Vale in the Southern Highlands of NSW. In his diary he noted that he did not think much of Australian campfire-cooked meals.
Fraser, Sir Symon (or Simon) of Neidpath (d. 1306), Scottish national hero; a nobleman whose forces trrrrounced the English forces of King Edward I (qv) at the Battle of Rosslyn or Roslin Muir on February 24, 1303. Later he fought for King Robert I of Scotland (Robert the Bruce). For a time he fought alongside William Wallace.
Fuller, Sir George (January 22, 1861 - July 22, 1940), Premier of NSW on two occasions during the 1920s. His first term of office lasted less than one day (December 20, 1921); his second lasted from April 13, 1922 to June 17, 1925. From 1928 to 1931 he was the NSW Agent-General in London.
Galsworthy, John (August 14, 1867 - January 31, 1933), English writer best known for The Forsyte Saga (1906 - 1921) and its sequels. He won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1932. One of his mentors was Edward Garnett (qv).
Garnett, Edward (February 9, 1868 - February 21, 1937), English writer, critic and a significant and personally generous literary editor, who was instrumental in getting DH Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers published. His father Richard Garnett (1835-1906) was a writer and librarian at the British Museum. His wife was Constance Garnett, known for her translations of Russian literature, and for introducing (with Edward) the English-speaking world to Dostoevsky, Chekhov, Tolstoy, Gogol, Goncharov, Pushkin, Turgenev and Ostrovsky. Garnett apparently had little formal education, but educated himself by reading very widely. He gained a high reputation at the time for a mixture of good sense and sensitivity in relation to contemporary literature. His influence though his encouragement of leading authors exceeded by far that of his own writing. His literary contacts and correspondents spread far and wide, from Peter Kropotkin (qv) to Edward Thomas. He worked as an editor and reader for the London publishing houses of TF Unwin Ltd, Duckworth and Co., and then Jonathan Cape. He brought together in 1898 Joseph Conrad (qv), an Unwin author to whom he acted as a mentor as well as a friend, and Ford Madox Ford; they collaborated in the first few years of the 20th Century. Garnett befriended DH Lawrence, and for a time influenced him in the direction of realist fiction. He also had a role in getting the work of TE Lawrence (‘Lawrence of Arabia’) published. One of his failures was to turn down for Duckworth James Joyce’s Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, in 1915. He was a strong supporter of John Galsworthy (qv), and The Man of Property in the Forsyte Saga was dedicated to him. He also championed American writers Stephen Crane (qv) and Robert Frost, and Australia’s Henry Lawson.
George, Henry (September 2, 1839 - October 29, 1897), American political economist, and the most influential proponent of the ‘Single Tax’ on land, perhaps best known for his book Progress and Poverty. In 1886 George ran for mayor of New York, and polled second (ahead of Theodore Roosevelt). In his day he was so famous he was an icon for merchandising; for example, boxes of Henry George cigars were sold, as there were those named for Mark Twain (qv). It has been claimed he was the third most famous man in the USA, behind only Twain and Thomas Edison. His ideas were taken up to some degree in South Africa, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Australia – where State governments still levy a Land Value Tax, albeit low and with many exemptions. An attempt by the Liberal Government of the day to implement them in 1909 as part of the budget caused a crisis in Britain which led indirectly to reform of the House of Lords. Henry George was familiar with the work of Karl Marx (qv) – and predicted that if Marx’s ideas were tried the likely result would be a dictatorship. Many were heavily influenced by him, such as George Bernard Shaw, Leo Tolstoy, Sun Yat Sen, Herbert Simon, and David Lloyd George. A follower of George, Lizzie Magie, a Virginia Quaker, created the original board game Monopoly in 1904 to demonstrate his theories. In 1890 George was in Australia for more than three months on a popular 38-town lecture tour. Henry Lawson mentions him in ‘A Day on a Selection’, in While the Billy Boils, 1896. An estimated 100,000 people attended George’s funeral.
Gibbs, May, (January 17, 1877 - 1969) English-born Australian children’s author, creator of the enduring children’s classic characters, Snugglepot and Cuddlepie, the gumnut babies. She worked as a political cartoonist in Perth before going to Sydney and working for The Bulletin. The Gumnut Babies, her first book about Australian bush fairies, was published in 1916 in Sydney.
Gilmore, Dame Mary, (née Mary Cameron; August 16, 1865 - December 3, 1962), Australian poet, utopian socialist, friend of socialist William Lane (qv) and fellow poet Henry Lawson, later a member of the Australian Communist Party. She had a close relationship with Henry Lawson who once asked her to marry him. When Billy Lane led several hundred (figures vary according to source) Australians on the Royal Tar to Paraguay to form a utopian community, Gilmore was the colony’s schoolteacher and ‘newspaper’ editor (the paper was read out daily to the colonists). After her return to Australia some six years later (she and her husband William Gilmore, a shearer by trade, were among the first to leave Cosme, disillusioned), she continued to write poetry and became active in campaigns for the aged and under-privileged. In her day, and for several decades, she was certainly Australia’s best-known woman poet. Her works include Marri’d and Other Verses (1910), The Tilted Cart (1925), The Wild Swan (1930), Old Days, Old Ways (1934) More Recollections (1935) and Fourteen Men (1954). In 1908 she was women’s editor of Worker, the newspaper of Australia’s largest and most powerful trade union, the AWU (qv). Before her death at 97 she had a succession of housekeepers – nine came and went in six months – many of them leaving in exasperation. On Thursday, December 6, 1962, Sydney witnessed the first State funeral granted an Australian writer since that of Henry Lawson forty years earlier. Like her former beau, Henry Lawson, her image appeared on the Australian $10 note, or, rather images, for the banknote features an early photograph as well as the controversial portrait painted in her later years by Sir William Dobell. Dame Mary Gilmore’s ashes were buried in her husband’s grave at Cloncurry cemetery, Sydney.
Goldman, Emma (June 27, 1869 - May 14, 1940), Lithuanian-born American anarchist writer and activist, pioneer advocate of free love and contraception who was deported to the Soviet Union for inciting World War I draft riots in New York. Outspoken birth control advocate and champion of women’s rights, Goldman wrote My Disillusionment in Russia; Anarchism & Other Essays; The Place of the Individual in Society. In 1907, according to Goldman’s autobiography, Living My Life, Melbourne anarchist Chummy Fleming (qv) invited her to tour Australia and Australian anarchists had raised money for her fare. In 1908 she made preparations to go (she was to embark on the Makura at Vancouver on March 26, 1909), and 1,500 pounds of literature was despatched ahead. In April, Fleming wrote in the Melbourne Socialist that she had embarked, believing it to be so, but events had intervened, including police harassment and the US immigration department organising her deportation, but also a fit of jealousy over her lover, Dr Ben Reitman, whose sexual liaisons she was finding a challenge, despite her ideology.
Gordon, Jim (James William Gordon; 1874 - 1949), writer (‘Beside the Cypress Pine’; ‘The Old Home’; ‘Henry Lawson on the Track’; ‘Among My Own People’; ‘Back to the Bush’; ‘The Belittling of Lawson’), companion of Henry Lawson on his tramps around Bourke and Hungerford in 1892-3, and memoirist of this and other events in Lawson’s life. He is thought to be the model for one of Lawson’s central fictional characters, ‘Mitchell’. He hailed from Creswick, Victoria and it has been said that he was born under a tilted cart. Gordon later became a published author, sometimes under the nom de plume ‘Jim Grahame’. Twenty-four years later Gordon was residing in Leeton when Lawson lived there from January 1916 to September 1917, and they knocked around together again as in their ‘days when the world was wide’.
Grey, Sir George (April 14, 1812 - September 19, 1898) writer, explorer, soldier, Governor of South Australia, twice Governor of New Zealand, Governor of Cape Colony (South Africa), Premier of New Zealand.
Griffith, Sir Samuel (June 21, 1845 - August 9, 1920), Australian politician and judge, the principal author of the Constitution of Australia. Griffith was Premier of Queensland (1883-88), and was knighted in 1886.
Griffo, Young (Albert Griffiths; March 31, 1871 - December 7, 1927), Australian boxer. Young Griffo grew up in the tough dockside district of Millers Point in Sydney. There he sold newspapers for a living and learned to bare-knuckle fight. In 1894 he left Sydney (coincidentally, on the same steamship that RL Stevenson departed Sydney from for the last time) and in New York City he became Lightweight Boxing Champion of the World. (If there is dispute about the title it would appear to be that there were two world championships running at the time, with different British and American rules.) He was the star of Young Griffo vs. Battling Charles Barnett (filmed on the roof of Madison Square Garden, May 4, 1895), the first motion picture in the world to be screened before a paying audience. It premiered at 153 Broadway in New York City on May 20, 1895, more than seven months before the Lumière brothers showed their film at the Grand Cafe on the Boulevard des Capucines, Paris, on December 18 – the event usually said to be the first movie-by-ticket screening in the world. His brilliant career in the USA came to a grinding end in New York City in 1895, at the peak of his international fame, after he was convicted of sexually abusing William Gottlieb, an 11-year-old boy. Griffiths spent the last three decades of his life drinking himself to death, and famously sat vacantly for years begging in Times Square, a familiar figure on the steps of the Rialto Theater. Griffo is the usual Australian nickname for anyone named Griffiths.
Habens, William (June 17, 1839 - February 3, 1899), New Zealand clergyman and Inspector General of Schools.
Hall, Ben (May 9?, 1837 - May 5, 1865), noted Australian bushranger (qv) whose gang paid a number of visits to Braidwood to intercept gold coaches on their way to Goulburn and Sydney.
Hardie, James Keir (August 15, 1856 - September 26, 1915), Scottish socialist and labour leader, a founder of the British Labour Party, the first Labour MP to be elected to the UK Parliament.
Hardin, John Wesley (May 26, 1853 - August 19, 1895) American Old West outlaw and gunman.
Hargrave, Lawrence (January 29, 1850 - July 6, 1915), Australian engineer, astronomer, explorer, aeronautical pioneer and inventor of the box kite. On November 12, 1894, he linked four of his kites together, and flew beneath it for about five metres. Hargrave believed that a “patentee is nothing but a legal robber”, preferring his inventions to be used for the betterment of mankind. Wilbur Wright contacted him in 1900 about the use of his aircraft models; Hargrave replied that he had no patents, his aeronautical discoveries being “at the disposal of all”. Lawrence Hargrave and Scottish inventor Alexander Graham Bell shared a friendship and a scientific curiosity about the applications of Hargrave’s box kite invention and its developments for aviation. Lawrence Hargrave lived on Woollahra Point, Sydney from 1902 to 1915. He used to like strolling on the water across Double Bay wearing on his feet a sort of inflated snow-shoe. Hargrave was buried at Waverley Cemetery (qv), Sydney.
Harte, (Francis) Bret (August 25, 1836 - May 6, 1902), American author (The Luck of the Roaring Camp; The Outcasts of Poker Flat) best remembered for his accounts of pioneering life in California; he lived in London from 1885.
Haymarket Martyrs: August Spies, Albert Parsons (qv), Adolph Fischer, George Engel, Louis Lingg, Michael Schwab, Samuel Fielden and Oscar Neebe, all charged with murder after the Haymarket Riot of May 4, 1886, in Chicago, USA. Fielden’s and Schwab’s capital sentences were commuted to life in prison. On the eve of his scheduled execution, Lingg committed suicide in his cell. The others were hanged on November 11, 1887. Hooded, and marched to the gallows, they sang the Marseillaise, at that time the anthem of the international revolutionary movement. August Spies was widely quoted as having shouted out, “The time will come when our silence will be more powerful than the voices you strangle today.” On June 26, 1893, Illinois Governor John Peter Altgeld pardoned Fielden, Neebe, and Schwab after having concluded all eight defendants were not guilty. Their case is the origin of international May Day observances.
Haynes, John (April 26, 1850 - August 15, 1917), Australian (NSW) parliamentarian for five months short of thirty years, and co-founder (1880), with JF Archibald (qv), of The Bulletin (qv). In The Bulletin’s earlier years he once spent thirteen weeks in prison for libel (the public raised £3,000 and he was released). In 1891, Haynes was ratepayer on several Sydney addresses that were the focus of radical and even anarchist activity in Sydney (Leigh House, Active Service Brigade HQ and McNamara’s (qv) Book Depot). Through the courts he pursued the corrupt NSW politicians William Patrick Crick (qv) (Haynes knocked him down in a fight in 1893) and William Nicholas Willis (qv), the latter all the way to South Africa. He was later editor of the Newsletter, which in 1906 attacked fellow parliamentarian and Truth publisher, John Norton (qv) as a criminal and murderer.
Head, Walter (December 28, 1861 - February 28, 1939), poet, journalist, editor and organiser for New Australia (qv). The son of the first white man born in the Melbourne district, he became involved in the trade union movement and worked as an organiser for the Shearers’ Union. He co-founded (with Arthur Rae, qv) The Hummer, a labor newspaper originally published in Wagga Wagga, NSW, for which Mary Cameron (see Mary Gilmore) was a freelance journalist from Sydney. Head moved to Sydney in 1893 and renamed his newspaper Worker. Mary Cameron introduced him to William Lane’s (qv) movement and he not only became active in it, his office at 111 Elizabeth St became the headquarters and from 1892-3 he edited New Australia. Just before Head and his family were due to leave for Paraguay, his infant son Rowland was lost and never found, in the bush at Gippsland, Victoria where his wife was visiting relatives. (Henry Lawson wrote a fictional story about lost children, ‘The Babies in the Bush’, and used the name of his associate Walter Head as that of the main character, a drover: “His name was Head – Walter Head. He was a boss drover on the overland routes”). This tragedy, and controversy surrounding New Australia finances (following the split at New Australia – it is unlikely he did anything unethical), disrupted Head’s life immeasurably, precipitating the end of his marriage. He found it necessary to ‘disappear’ and he fled first to New Zealand under the alias ‘Walter Ashe Woods’, and soon after to Tasmania under the alias of ‘Walter Alan Woods’. ‘Walter Woods’ became one of the founders of the Tasmanian Labor Party, holding a seat in the Tasmanian House of Assembly from 1906 until 1931, becoming known as the ‘Father of the Tasmanian Parliament’ (Speaker of the House 1914-16, and 1926-28). His also edited the influential Labor newspaper The Clipper. He remarried in 1910 and had two further children. His son Wally emigrated to New Australia, never returning to Australia and eventually settling in North America.
Hoffmeister, Samuel ‘Frenchy’ (d. 1894), shearer and union activist, quite likely an anarchist, who probably was one of about sixteen raiders who burned down a shearing shed at Dagworth Station, Queensland, on September 1, 1894, though there are divergent opinions on this. The shed was guarded and ninety shots were fired. Hoffmeister went into hiding after his alleged arson, and might or might not have stolen a sheep to survive in his flight from the Queensland police with a £1,000 reward on his head. He was pursued by the ‘squatter’ of Dagworth, Bob Macpherson, and three ‘troopers’, Senior Constables Michael Daly, Robert Dyer, and Austin Cafferty, and found shot dead beside a billabong; the coroner declared it was suicide. Banjo Paterson (qv), who visited Dagworth in early 1895, wrote an anodyne version of the incident in ‘Waltzing Matilda’, with the melody provided by Christina Macpherson, whose brothers owned Dagworth. The song enjoyed a brief period of official recognition as the Australian national song (coexisting with ‘Advance Australia Fair’ as the National Anthem).
Holland, Harry (Henry Edmund Holland; June 10, 1868 - October 8, 1933), NSW-born New Zealand writer (Red Roses on the Highways, 1924), politician and unionist. In 1890 Holland, unemployed, left the Salvation Army, believing that its response to poverty was inadequate, joining the small Australian Socialist League two years later. Following this, with his friend Tom ‘The Vag’ Batho, he began a career of socialist journalism, launching Sydney’s Socialist in October 1894. The year 1896 saw him convicted of libelling the superintendent of the NSW Labour Bureau, and he served three months in prison. On his release, he transferred his newspaper to Newcastle, calling it Socialist Journal of the Northern People, then in 1900 he published it out of Sydney as People. In 1901 he organised the Tailoresses’s Union of NSW. In 1909, after having worked editing labor papers in Grenfell and Queanbeyan and launching the International Socialist Review for Australasia, Holland was convicted of sedition (he had advocated violent revolution against capitalism during the Broken Hill miners’ strike) and was jailed for two years. Standing as a Revolutionary Socialist, he was defeated by W M Hughes (qv) in the 1910 Federal elections. The labor movement widely condemned Holland’s militancy, and in 1911 he suffered an emotional collapse. In 1912 he left Australia for New Zealand where he became the first leader of the NZ Labour Party. In 1913 he was imprisoned again for three months for the use of seditious language. In 1916 he was prominent in the formation of the New Zealand Labour Party and became its first leader, was elected to Parliament in 1918 and occupied the chair of that party until his death. In 1933, Holland died of a heart attack and was given a State funeral. His successor, the moderate Michael Joseph Savage, went on to lead the Labour Party to victory in the 1935 elections.
Holman, William (August 4, 1871 - June 5, 1934), cabinet-maker, barrister and Australian Labor Party Premier of NSW, who sided with Billy Hughes (qv) and split with the party on the conscription issue in 1916 during WWI, and immediately became Premier of a conservative Nationalist Party Government. As a young cabinet-maker in Sydney who had had immigrated from London with his parents in 1888 and lived in suburban Balmain, he became interested in the ideas of John Stuart Mill, William Morris (qv), Herbert Spencer and Charles Darwin, and became very active in the Australian labor movement. In 1906 during a Department of Lands corruption scandal that disgraced Paddy Crick (qv) and William Willis (qv) and damaged the career of Joseph Carruthers (qv), John Norton (qv) publicly challenged Holman that each should give up his parliamentary seat and stand for election in rural Cootamundra. Holman accepted the challenge while Norton ‘piked out’; nevertheless Holman won Cootamundra against a strong candidate. Holman was also a friend of Henry Lawson and helped the poet when he was down and out due to alcoholism – in 1916 at the request of Bertram Stevens (qv) and a delegation of Lawson’s friends, he organised for the poet a government sinecure at Leeton, NSW. Holman, son of an actor father, was an excellent public speaker (Australian Workman of July 21, 1894 said that he had no equal in Australia) and the most talented Leigh House lecturer. One of the pallbearers at his funeral was JC Watson (qv).
Holt, Bland (Joseph Bland Holt; March 24, 1853 - June 28, 1942), British actor, clown, comedian, producer and playwright who achieved popularity as the leading melodrama producer (particularly in Australia and New Zealand) for thirty years, using spectacular theatrical effects. His companies mostly worked in the Lyceum theatre, Sydney, and the Theatre Royal, Melbourne, giving lavish productions. Holt’s melodrama, The Breaking of the Drought, was made into a 1920 silent film of the same name, directed by Franklyn Barrett (1874 - July 16, 1964). It has been reconstructed by the Australian National Film and Sound Archive. Holt’s theatrical company was in friendly competition with that of JC Williamson (qv). Holt’s father, Clarence Holt, was a well-known tragedian in Australia during the mid-19th Century. Bland Holt prospered well in his profession and sometimes helped Henry Lawson financially when he was in a jam. He was friendly with Lawson in both Australia and New Zealand, and Lawson wrote a play for him called The Hero of Redclay, which Holt rejected (drama was not Lawson’s strong suit); Lawson turned into a short story of the same name, also dealing for a long period of time with publisher George Robertson (qv) to make a novel out of it, but Lawson never managed to write it.
Hoover, Herbert (August 10, 1874 - October 20, 1964) 31st President of the United States (1929 - 33), who was for a time founder-manager of the Broken Hill Zinc Corporation at Broken Hill, NSW. He arrived in 1897, hired by British mining firm of Bewick, Moreing & Co., and wa sent to gold fields of Australia where he began to make what became a vast fortune. Hoover landed in the port of Albany, Western Australia in May 1897 and travelled to Coolgardie by train, his arrival luckily coinciding with the WA gold rush. With his wife Lou, Hoover returned to Australia in 1902, later helping to found the company which later became Rio Tinto Zinc of Broken Hill.
Hopetoun, Lord (John Adrian Louis Hope, 1st Marquess of Linlithgow; September 25, 1860 - February 29, 1908), first Governor-General of Australia, born at Queensferry, Linlithgowshire, Scotland.
Hopkins, Livingston (‘HOP’; July 7, 1846 - August 21, 1927), American-born (Bellefontaine, Ohio) Australian cartoonist and caricaturist of The Bulletin (qv). ‘HOP’, the thirteenth of 14 children, did more than 19,000 drawings and was one of the best-known Australian magazine artists of his day. After a successful career in the USA on such publications as Harper’s Bazaar and Harper’s Magazine, and a number of books, he arrived in Australia in February, 1883 at the invitation of The Bulletin’s WH Traill (May 7, 1843 – May 21, 1902), intending to work for that magazine for a couple of years, and stayed thirty, ending up a part-proprietor. Hopkins ran an artists’ camp with Julian Ashton (qv) at Balmoral, Sydney.
Hughes, William Morris, seventh Prime Minister of Australia (September 25, 1862 - October 28, 1952); wartime leader and the last Australian Prime Minister born in Britain. In 1952 he was longest-serving member of the Australian House of Representatives (1901-52) and was earlier a Labor Member of the NSW Legislative Assembly from 1894. Before entering politics his chequered work experience included droving and boundary riding, deckhanding, clerical and labouring work, cooking and saddlery, working as a fruit-picker and blacksmith’s hand and in factories and on farms. He was influenced by the book Progress and Poverty, written by the progressive American political economist, Henry George (qv). In his early days as an activist he worked on illegal anarchist magazines such as Hard Cash (see entry above for Arthur Desmond) and The New Order. As Prime Minister (his period of office was October 27, 1915 - February 9, 1923) he forced a WWI anti-conscription struggle and was the leader of the pro-conscription side. Gradually as his politics moved rightward he was accused of splitting the Labor movement and became a pariah to Australian progressives, earning the epithet ‘rat’ which he never shook off. On October 29, 1952, conservative Prime Minister Robert Menzies told the House of Representatives “I find it most difficult to realise that this is the first day in the history of the Federal Parliament in which William Morris Hughes has not sat as a member”. Hughes had died at his home the previous day. Both friends and enemies attended his State funeral. He was not however, the last member of the first Commonwealth Parliament to die, as that honour goes to King O'Malley (qv) who outlived him by fourteen months.
Illingworth, Nelson (1862 - 1926), Australian sculptor and colourful bohemian, one of the seven heptarchs of the Dawn and Dusk Club (qv) of which Henry Lawson was a member around 1898. There is speculation that Hannah Thornburn, loved by Lawson, was one of his models. At Papawai pa, New Zealand, he erected a monument in 1911, to the memory of Hamuera Tamahau Mahupuku, a distinguished chief of Ngati-Kahungunu. It was Illingworth who made the death mask of Lawson which is in the Mitchell Library, Sydney (though there is still debate whether the mask was made in the writer’s life or death). Illingworth also sculpted a bust of Australia’s first Prime Minister Sir Edmund Barton (qv) and one of Sir Henry Parkes (qv). He was also something of a composer. Henry and Bertha Lawson stayed with Illingworth’s parents for some weeks when they arrived in London.
Jandamarra (Tjangamarra; aka Pigeon; 1870? - April 1, 1897), Indigenous Australian insurrection leader. Jandamarra, born into the Bunuba tribe which occupied mountainous country in the Kimberley district of Western Australia. A former police tracker, he used the caves and surroundings of Windjana Gorge and Tunnel Creek, inland from Derby, in the Kimberley as hideouts in a guerrilla struggle to fight European expansion. Jandamarra envisaged an Aboriginal uprising that would transcend tribal boundaries. In late 1894, a posse of about thirty heavily armed police and settlers attacked Jandamarra and his followers, who had staked out Windjina Gorge in preparation for an attack. In the battle that ensued on November 16, 1894, Jandamarra killed a police constable but was wounded himself and he lay low for two years, so that many thought he had died. The police recruited a remarkable black tracker from the Pilbara, known as Minko Micki, or Mick, who was said to possess magical powers and had no fear of the rebel leader. Jandamarra was finally tracked down and killed by Micki at Tunnel Creek, putting an end to the battle for Bunuba lands.
Jersey, Lord (The Right Honourable Victor Albert George Child-Villiers, 7th Earl of Jersey; March 20, 1845 - May 31, 1915), Governor of NSW, 1891-3. He was preceded by Lord Carrington (qv) and succeeded by Sir Robert Duff. Jersey was the UK’s Paymaster-General from 1889-90. He married a Scottish woman, Hon. Margaret Elizabeth Leigh, daughter of William Leigh, 2nd Baron Leigh, on September 19, 1872, and they had six children.
Jones, Clara (Nurse Jones; c. 1867 - after 1964), nurse and labor activist. In 1891, aged about 24, she was nursing at Clermont Hospital, near Rockhampton, Queensland, close to where the shearers’ strike was at its most intense and violent. The following year she hoisted a red flag over the hospital at Muttaburra in celebration of the election to the Queensland Legislative Assembly of Thomas Ryan, one of the Barcaldine Strike Committee. One of the hospital committee members pulled down the flag and she hauled it up again. In 1893, aged about 26, she came from Bourke to Sydney to emigrate to New Australia (qv), and while at Balmain with dozens of others sitting out the weeks-long wait to sail, challenged William Lane (qv) to show the Chairman’s report; it was part of a wider series of grievances and incidents that led to something of a split into two parties – those who trusted Lane and those who did not – even before sailing on July 16. Only three weeks out to sea on the Royal Tar en route to South America in early August 1893, she strolled the decks with Dave Stevenson (qv), who was engaged to Mary Cameron (qv), who had remained in Sydney to write and recruit for New Australia). William Lane, whose wife Annie (qv) was keeping a “custodial eye” on Stevenson for Mary’s sake, overreacted and banned single women from being on deck at night without parents – Clara was the only single woman this could have applied to. The incident led to near mutiny and, in a manner that became a pattern at New Australia and Cosme (qv), Lane offered to resign. Clara Jones was in love with Dave Stevenson all her life, all through the many years living on the same Paraguayan community as he, but having heard in 1893 (in Balmain, before embarkation) that he was engaged to Mary Cameron, was married on New Year’s Day, 1894, by William Lane to Billy Laurence. She had a loveless but dutiful relationship with her husband who died in Buenos Aires following surgery when he was attempting to enlist for WWI, and she married Stevenson in 1916. The Stevensons were among the last originals to leave Paraguay, which they did in 1927.
Joseph, John, African American from New York; first of the rebels of Eureka Stockade (qv) to be tried for High Treason.
Kadir, Abdul, late-19th-Century Afghan cameleer in Bourke, NSW. He owned the camel stud, Wangamanna Station (Cobb & Co., qv, at least once used these camels to pull the coaches during drought) and was the builder of a private mosque at Marree, South Australia, which was a Muslim place of worship from the 1880s to the 1920s.
Kelly, Ned (Edward Kelly; June, 1855 - November 11, 1880), Australia’s most famous bushranger (qv), and, to some, a folk hero for his defiance of the colonial authorities. He was known as the Man in the Iron Mask (after the Alexandre Dumas book) because he was armoured when captured.
Kendall, Henry (April 18, 1841 - August 1, 1882), Australian poet, most remembered for his poetical works, Leaves from Australian Forests published in 1869. The son of alcoholics, he was afflicted with the same disease. On the death of his father, Basil, in 1852, Kendall’s mother took Henry and his twin bother, also named Basil, to live with their grandfather, a strict Irish ex-soldier and ex-policeman named Patrick McNally. Henry worked as a shepherd for his grandfather, and had little education. Later, Henry spent two years as a cabin boy at sea. From about 1859 his poetry began to be published in Sydney. His first volume of poems (1862) sold well, but the second one (published by George Robertson, qv, in 1869) failed, and eventually poverty and alcohol got the better of him, although the actual cause of death was tuberculosis. Kendall was buried at Waverley Cemetery (qv), Sydney, where the monument to him was paid for by a subscription initiated by Louisa Lawson.
Kipling, Rudyard (December 30, 1865 - January 18, 1936), British author and poet, born in India. He is best known for the children’s story The Jungle Book (1894), the Indian spy novel Kim (1901), the poems ‘Gunga Din’ (1892), ‘If—’ (1895), and his many short stories. He was also an outspoken defender of Western imperialism, and coined the phrase ‘The White Man’s Burden’. In November, 1891, Kipling was in Sydney, departing on the 16th. Later, in ‘The Song of the Cities’ (illustrated by W Heath Robinson), he wrote:
Greeting! My birth-stain have I turned to good;
Forcing strong wills perverse to steadfastness:
The first flush of the tropics in my blood,
And at my feet Success!
Korzeniowski, Captain, see Conrad, Joseph.
Kropotkin, Prince Peter Alexeevich (December 9, 1842 - February 8, 1921), one of Russia’s foremost anarchists and one of the first advocates of what he called “anarchist communism”: the model of society he advocated for most of his life was that of a communalist society free from central government. Because of his title and his prominence as an anarchist in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries, he was known by some as ‘the Anarchist Prince’. He left behind many books, pamphlets and articles, the most prominent being his works The Conquest of Bread and Fields, Factories and Workshops, and his principal scientific offering, Mutual Aid: A Factor in Evolution. He was also a significant contributor to the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica.
Lalor, Peter (February 5, 1827 - February 9, 1889), best known of the leaders of the Eureka Stockade (qv) rebellion of 1854. Born in Ireland he immigrated to Australia in 1852, soon joining the gold rush. The year after the Eureka Stockade Lalor was appointed to the Victorian parliament, later becoming Speaker of the Parliament from 1870 until 1877, and Postmaster-General, Minister for Trade and Customs, and Chairman of Committees in Sir Graham Berry’s government from 1877 to 1879. He was offered a knighthood, but declined. The Melbourne suburb of Lalor is named for him, as is a federal electorate, the Division of Lalor.
Lane, Annie (c. 1863 - March 5, 1928), Australian feminist and intentional community pioneer, involved with her husband William Lane (qv) in the founding of the New Australia (qv) and Cosme (qv) ‘colonies’ in Paraguay from 1893. It was she who wrote the long-running ‘Lucinda Sharpe’ columns in the Brisbane press, but this was not known publicly until long after her death as it was generally believed they were written by her husband.
Lane, Ernest (December 26, 1868 - June 18, 1954), English-born Australian journalist, younger brother of William Lane (qv); associate of Edwin Brady (qv), SA Rosa (qv), Alfred Yewen (qv) and Larry Petrie (qv). His memoirs are a source of much interesting information about the early Australian labor movement. Along with people such as George Black (qv), WG Spence, (qv) and Henry Lawson he was a member of the radical fraternity Knights of Labor (qv). In 1903 Lane with his wife and children went to Cosme (qv), the breakaway colony from New Australia (qv).
Lane, William (September 6, 1861 - August 26, 1917), a pioneer of the Australian labor movement. He was born in Bristol, England, and died in Auckland, New Zealand. In 1885, aged 24, after having worked in the USA and Canada, he immigrated to Australia and worked in Brisbane as a journalist, eventually becoming editor of Worker and publishing, among others, Henry Lawson. In the USA Lane had worked first as a printer, then as a reporter for the Detroit Free Press (1881). In Brisbane he worked on Courier and Evening Observer until, in 1887, he established his own weekly labor paper, Boomerang, soon becoming a power in Queensland labor politics. He was also a supporter of Emma Miller (qv) and the Women’s suffrage movement, and a strong proponent of Henry George’s (qv) Single Tax Movement. He was influenced by writings on Lemuria, Shangri-la and Utopia, and the utopian writings of Edward Bellamy (qv) and writings and experiments of Etienne Cabet. During the Shearers’ Strike of 1891, he noted the intransigence of the pastoralists and felt he should encourage the militancy of workers, though he still used the word ‘barbaric’ to qualify the concept of striking. He also would have been aware of the establishment by striking Barcaldine shearers of a commune on the Alice River in Queensland. He helped to form the Labor Federation and was a fundraiser for the 1889 London Dock Strike (Australians sent £30,000 in a lump sum), though his sentiments were still those of parliamentarianism and he had no stomach for industrial conflict. Also in 1889 he wrote and published his first novel, White or Yellow? A Story of Race War 1908, which was not the last time that his writings were stridently racist, in keeping with much of Australian radicalism of the day and for decades later (it was Labor that co-invented the notorious White Australia Policy). Lane was also active in the Maritime Strike of 1890. In March, 1890 he sold Boomerang and founded the Brisbane Worker, with its rallying motto ‘Socialism in Our Time’. He was a strong supporter and sometime harsh critic of Australian women’s suffragism. Never one to mince words, he described Australia’s political order as “that which produces scrofulous kings and lying priests, and greasy millionaires, and powdered prostitutes, and ferret-faced thieves”. Following the defeat of the Shearers’ Strike, Lane was completely disillusioned with the trustworthiness and class consciousness of the elected Labor parliamentarians of NSW. He was also deeply disappointed by the passing in March, 1892, of the Polynesian Laborers’ Bill, which extended the period that the Melanesian labor trade would be lawful. In 1892 Lane (as ‘John Miller’) wrote a novel, The Workingman’s Paradise; both Mary Cameron (qv) and Henry Lawson are said to have been characters under other names, Lawson being ‘Artie’. On July 16, 1893 under Lane’s leadership, 220 men, women and children left Sydney to establish the New Australia (qv) utopian communist settlement in Paraguay. Descendants of some of the total 500 - 600 settlers still live in the district. The collapse of New Australia, Loma Rouga and Cosme (qv) broke Lane’s spirit. In January, 1900, the NSW Labor Council invited him to edit in Sydney the new Worker journal. His politics had shifted considerably rightward by then, and he even supported the second British war in South Africa, which earned the ire of his colleagues and former comrades. In May, he resigned and returned to Auckland, New Zealand and a job on New Zealand Herald (using the pen-name ‘Tohunga’) where his writing never showed the old radical zeal; in fact, Lane turned his tub-thumping abilities to the cause of the British Empire at war. For the rest of his life he paid off debts from his brave but cursed utopian experiment and it seems never spoke about his South American experiences. He had been editor of Herald for nearly four years when he died in 1917 in Auckland from bronchitis and a weak heart, having lost one young son to a cricket ball in Paraguay, and another on the beaches of Gallipoli. “This journal has lost a great editor and the country a great Imperialist”, said the memorial editorial in New Zealand Herald.
Lang, Jack (John Thomas Lang; December 21, 1876 - September 27, 1975), estate agent and politician, Henry Lawson’s brother-in-law, as they married the Bredt sisters – Jack married Hilda Bredt, and Henry married Bertha junior (see Lawson, Bertha). He was a member of the Australian Labor Party, and the Premier of NSW for two terms, from 1925-27, and again from 1930-32. Among his many reforms: State pensions for widowed mothers with dependent children under fourteen – reportedly a world first in the development of modern welfare states, and a universal and mandatory system of workers’ compensation for death, illness and injury incurred on the job, funded by compulsory premiums levied on employers. His courageous attempts to control the Great Depression failed and he is the only premier of any Australian State to have been dismissed by the State governor (the representative of the British monarch) without there being an election or parliamentary vote of no confidence. This was due to his refusal to pay interest on government loans borrowed from financiers in the United Kingdom at the height of the Great Depression, when Australia had the second-highest unemployment rate in the world, after Germany. The ‘Lang Plan’ was in contravention to the Australian Constitution and was massively opposed by capital. During his premiership, 400,000 people signed a petition for his removal from office, and 100,000 men joined the New Guard, a clandestine extreme-right private army, claimed by author Gerald Stone to have been the largest militia in the world. On March 19, 1932, as Lang was opening the Sydney Harbour Bridge, New Guard member Captain Francis de Groot sneaked into the official opening procession disguised as a ceremonial guard riding a horse in the parade. Just before Lang was about to cut the ribbon to open the Harbour Bridge, Captain de Groot galloped up to the ribbon and slashed the ribbon with a sabre and declared the Bridge open in the name of the British Empire. Aided by the ultra-conservative print media and physical intimidation by the New Guard, the election campaign following Lang’s dismissal by Sir Philip Game saw a level of hysteria not often seen in Australia. Lang’s campaign appearances attracted fervent rallies and adoring crowds sometimes in excess of 200,000 people, but he lost in a landslide. Lang’s constant disagreements and controversies with other Labor Party politicians including James Scullin, and his refusal to co-operate with any other authority to combat the Depression, led to his expulsion from the Australian Labor Party soon after. Lang then set up his own Labor Party, Lang Labor, which belligerently co-existed with the official Australian Labor Party for much of the rest of the 1930s. Lang was reinstated into the ALP in 1971.
Lawrence, DH (David Herbert Lawrence; September 11, 1885 - March 2, 1930), English author (Sons and Lovers; Lady Chatterley’s Lover). Friend of Lawson’s mentor Edward Garnett (qv). His novel Kangaroo is a semi autobiographical account of a three month visit to Australia by Lawrence and his wife in 1922.
Lawson, Bertha (1877 - c. August 1, 1957), writer, daughter of Bertha McNamara (qv) and stepdaughter of WHT McNamara (qv); wife of Henry Lawson. Co-author with John Le Gay Brereton (qv) of Henry Lawson, By His Mates (1931). Twenty years after Henry’s 1922 death, she published a memoir entitled My Henry Lawson, co-written by Will Lawson (no relation; September 2, 1876 - October 13, 1957), who was inspired to literary pursuits by reading Henry Lawson, edited the publication Australian Bush Songs and Ballads (1944), wrote a number of novels including When Cobb & Co was King (1936), as well as historical and travel books, and became NSW secretary of the Fellowship of Australian Writers. English-born Will Lawson lived with Bertha at Northbridge, NSW from approximately 1943 until she died several weeks before him in 1957. A heavy drinker said to be ‘awkward in his cups’, he wrote that Bertha “saved me from the grog”.
Lawson, Henry (June 17, 1867 - September 2, 1922).
Lawson, Louisa (February 17, 1848 - August 12, 1920).
Lindsay, Norman (February 22, 1879 - November 21, 1969), prolific and controversial artist, sculptor, writer (Redheap; Age of Consent) and editorial cartoonist who scandalised many in his nation by his passion for the human form, but today is widely considered Australia’s greatest artist. Much of his pen and ink work was published in The Bulletin (qv). His vast output of etchings, painting, cartoons, sculptures and other works often incorporated pagan European themes of gods, goddesses satyrs and nymphs, often in an Australian bushland setting. His 1918 self-illustrated book, The Magic Pudding, remains a classic of children’s literature. Lindsay drew the original pen drawing for the cover of Lawson’s While the Billy Boils, Joe Wilson’s Mates and a number of others. He was a sometime member of the Dawn and Dusk Club (qv). Lindsay was brother-in-law of Will Dyson (see Edward Dyson).
Longstaff, Sir John (March 10, 1861 - October 1, 1941) Australian artist. He was at different times a prominent war artist, president of the Victorian Artists’ Society, the Australian Art Association, and the Australian Academy of Art. In England in 1904 he painted portraits of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra. In 1927 he became a trustee of the National Gallery of Victoria and in 1928 became the first Australian artist to receive a knighthood. His portrait of Henry Lawson (April, 1900) is one of his most famous works. He won the Archibald Prize for portraiture five times (1925, 1928, 1929, 1931 and 1935).
Lowe, ‘Joseph’, artist. In 1885, Louisa Lawson met Mr Lowe, a young artist newly in Sydney, who, like her, was a great admirer of the poet Henry Kendall (qv). Ollif (Ollif, Lorna, Louisa Lawson: Henry Lawson's Crusading Mother, Rigby, Sydney, 1978) recounts the anecdote, which I have reproduced fairly faithfully in this novel, but I have no further information and I have invented his first name. Not to be confused with Henry Lawson’s Bulletin (qv) contemporary David Low (1891 - 1963), the famous New Zealand-born British cartoonist.
Lukin, Gresley (November 21, 1840 - September 12, 1916), editor. In 1873 he resigned his office as chief clerk of the Supreme Court of Queensland to become editor of the Brisbane Courier and Queenslander. In 1876 he sent an expedition under Ernest Favenc to explore a proposed transcontinental railway route. In March, 1890 he bought Boomerang from William Lane (qv). After becoming bankrupt and anxious to improve his health, in 1893 he went to New Zealand where he worked as parliamentary reporter on Wellington’s Evening Post, of which he became editor until his death.
MacCallum, Sir Mungo (February 26, 1854 - September 3, 1942), Scottish-born Australian academic and university administrator, teacher of John Le Gay Brereton (qv) at Sydney University, where MacCallum was a member of the senate from 1898, and dean of the faculty of arts from the same year till 1920. His portrait by Sir John Longstaff (qv) is in the Great Hall of Sydney University.
Mack, Louise (October 10, 1870 - November 23, 1935), Australian bohemian journalist and author (The World is Round; Maiden’s Prayer), staff journalist on The Bulletin, writing the ‘Woman's Letter’ under the pen-name of ‘Gouli Gouli’. At Sydney Girls’ High School, Mack and her friend Ethel Turner (qv) edited rival papers. In Florence, Italy she edited (1904-07) Italian Gazette. In WWI Mack became the first woman war correspondent, reporting for the UK papers Evening News and Daily Mail. In England she lived in great poverty while composing the novel, An Australian Girl in London (1902).
Mackellar, (Isobel Marion) Dorothea (July 1, 1885 - January 14, 1968), Australian poet, author of what is probably Australia's best-known lyric poem, ‘My Country’. Mackellar was buried at Waverley Cemetery (qv), Sydney.
MacKillop, Blessed Mary (January 15, 1842 - August 8, 1909), Australian nun, likely to become Australia’s first native-born saint. Her mother was lost with seventy others in the wreck of the paddle steamer Ly-ee-Moon on May 30, 1886. Mary was beatified on January 19, 1995 by Pope John Paul II.
Macleod, William (October 27, 1850 - June 24, 1929), artist on The Bulletin (qv); he had a cartoon in the first edition in 1880. Impressed with him, Bulletin owner JF Archibald (qv), asked him to join the staff. He became business manager in September 1887, soon acquired an interest in the paper, and for nearly forty years was actively engaged in the management of it. Stained glass windows from his designs are in various places, including the chapel of Long Bay Prison, Sydney. He is said to have been the one who ‘discovered’ the great cartoonist David Low.
Macquarie, Lachlan (January 31, 1762 - July 1, 1824), British military officer and colonial administrator, served as Governor of NSW from 1810-21 and had a leading role in the social, economic and architectural development of that colony.
Mahony, Francis (December 4, 1862 - June 28, 1916), Australian artist, member of the Dawn and Dusk Club (qv). He illustrated Henry Lawson’s While the Billy Boils (1896) and In the Days when the World was Wide (1900). Although christened Francis, Mahony later added ‘Prout’ and generally signed his work ‘Frank P Mahony’.
Mann, Tom (April 15, 1856 - March 13, 1941), noted British trade unionist. Largely self-educated, Mann became a successful organiser and a popular public speaker in the labour movement. He was acclaimed as the greatest labour agitator and orator of his time. His political awareness began at public meetings addressed by Annie Besant (qv) and John Bright. He was an associate of Henry Hyde Champion (qv). In 1894 he helped found Britain’s Independent Labour Party and became its first secretary. In 1901, Mann emigrated to Australia where was arrested twice and charged with sedition but in both cases was acquitted. In Melbourne he became an organiser for the Australian Labor Party, but grew disillusioned with the party, resigned and founded the Victoria Socialist Party. In 1910, back in Britain, he founded the Industrial Syndicalist Education League, worked as an organiser for Ben Tillett (qv) and was convicted of sedition but after seven weeks in prison was released due to public pressure. He went through two more sedition trials before his death at the age of 74.
Maquarie, Arthur, see Mullens, Arthur.
Marx, Karl Heinrich (May 5, 1818 - March 14, 1883), influential philosopher, political economist, author (Das Kapital; Communist Manifesto) and revolutionary organiser of the International Workingmen’s Association. While Marx addressed a wide range of issues, he is most famous for his analysis of history in terms of class struggle.
McAdoo, Orpheus Myron (1858 - July 17, 1900), African-American ‘black minstrel’ singer who toured Europe, South Africa and Australia with McAdoo’s American Minstrels and McAdoo’s Alabama Cakewalkers. The McAdoo Jubilee Singers, who had become almost naturalised Australians, continued Down Under up until WWI, by which time they had toured all the states and New Zealand. They toured South Africa until the Boer War, introducing the American gospel sound to that country, indirectly giving rise to Solomon Linda’s hit song ‘Wimoweh’ and groups such as Ladysmith Black Mambazo. By 1905 the minstrels included several white Australians, and Miss Claire Solly, a Western Australian Aboriginal contralto. One of McAdoo’s African-American singing colleagues in Australia, lawyer Robert Bradford Williams (1860? - June 24, 1942), became the longest-serving Mayor of Onslow, New Zealand. Like Henry Lawson’s, McAdoo’s body lies overlooking the Pacific Ocean at Waverley Cemetery (qv), Sydney. McAdoo’s nickname was actually ‘Bill’ but I call him ‘Orph’ here, because, let’s face it, the novel was already overrun with Williams.
McCubbin, Frederick (Februray 25, 1855 - December 20, 1917), Australian painter who was prominent in the celebrated Heidelberg School of art. In 1888, he became Master of the School of Design at the National Gallery where he taught several prominent Australian artists such as Charles Conder and Arthur Streeton (qv).
McElhone, John (June 16, 1833 - May 6, 1898), hide and tallow merchant and export agent, Alderman of the Sydney City Council (1878-82); Member of the NSW Legislative Assembly (1875-98).
McLean, Billy (1869 - March 22, 1896), young shearer and union man who was shot in the lung while entering with fifty fellow union shearers the shearing shed at Grassmere Woolshed at Nettalie Station near Wilcannia, NSW in late-August, 1894. His mate Jack Murphy was also shot. McLean was charged with ‘unlawful assembly’ and sentenced to three years hard labour at Goulburn Gaol where the damp and cold of the cells exacerbated his condition, but as he grew close to death was released early and died at home. His comrades erected a large pillared monument to him at Tower Hill Cemetery near Koroit (between Warrnambool and Port Fairy, Victoria). Donald MacDonell, General Secretary of the AWU (qv) wrote to Henry Lawson asking him to write the epitaph and many believe the words still to be seen engraved there today are indeed Lawson’s. McLean’s part in the 1894 strike is remembered in a number of folk ballads:
Billy was shot, and Murphy they got, ambushed at the shearing shed door,
We never can forget, dags and sweat, mixed with blood on the shearing shed floor,
Not one Union son, ired a gun, yet nine were arrested and tried,
The coward that shot them was given a medal, and sent to Tasmania to hide.
McMillan, William (November 14, 1850 - December 12, 1926), Irish-born Australian businessman, bank director and politician, nicknamed ‘Machine Gun’ McMillan by the Sydney labor movement who generally despised him. He was for a time NSW Treasurer under Sir Henry Parkes (qv). He was educated at Wesley College, Dublin and privately in London. He earned his nickname in Sydney on September 19, 1890, when during the Maritime Strike he declared that the Government would “take such steps to secure the liberty of the subjects of this country, that will be absolutely successful”. Workers speculated that this meant machine guns and British blue-jackets (qv) would be used against them and for this he was reviled for years in left-wing publications. (Later in the same month machine guns were positioned against demonstrators in Melbourne, this time by Lt-Col. Tom Price, qv.) Worker wrote “The words ‘tyrant’ and ‘nigger-driver’ are branded deep on his unlovely physiognomy”. The Bulletin (qv) wrote of him: “When state interference is contrary to the interests of his class, he’s against it; when it’s in favour of those interests, he’s for it. He is a cash and class legislator.”
McNamara, Bertha (Bertha Bredt Sr; née Matilda Emilie Bertha Kalkstein; September 28, 1853 - August 1, 1931), socialist agitator, feminist, pamphleteer, bookseller, prominent member of the SDF (qv) and WSL (qv). After the death of her husband Peter Hermann Bredt she published Home Talk on Socialism (1891), one of Australia’s first pamphlets on socialism, and married (July 9, 1892) William Henry Thomas McNamara (qv). In Castlereagh St, Sydney, she ran a boarding-house in conjunction with McNamara’s Book and News Depot. Bertha McNamara, who has been called ‘The Mother of the Labour Movement’, carried on agitating for social reform for 25 years after the death of her second husband.
McNamara, William Henry Thomas (March 18, 1857 - May 11, 1906), radical orator and owner of McNamara’s Book and News Depot at 221 Castlereagh St, Sydney, main meeting place of ‘the Castlereagh Street radicals’, including Henry Lawson, who married his step-daughter Bertha Bredt (see Bertha Lawson). Jack Lang (qv) married Bertha’s sister Hilda. McNamara learned journalism in Melbourne and was in Sydney by May 1887. After a time in Sydney, he went back to Melbourne, married Bertha Bredt, Senior (Bertha McNamara, qv), a widow with two daughters (Bertha, Jr and Hilda), and on his return in 1892 became Sydney’s most prominent radical bookseller. On May 4, 1887, McNamara and six others met as a socialist group and began taking members. They held debates on Sundays and out of these, and open-air meetings, grew the foundation of the ASL (qv), which met on Sunday evenings at 533B George St, Sydney, with McNamara, George Black (qv) and Thomas Walker (qv) as leaders. On August 27 someone showed the ASL leaders a copy of WR Winspear’s (qv) newspaper, Radical, which had been launched on March 12, and McNamara decided to arrange with Winspear to make it the official organ of the ASL. From August, 1888, it was called Australian Radical. In Melbourne in 1892 he worked as a correspondent for John Norton’s (qv) Truth. McNamara’s first bookshop, founded in 1892, was at 238 Castlereagh St, next door to the Labor Bureau run by Larry Petrie (qv). Heat from the police forced the move to 221, next door to Leigh House on one side, and on the other the ASB (qv), urban unemployed workers organised by John Dwyer (qv) and Arthur Desmond (qv) during the 1890s Depression. McNamara was imprisoned for six months for selling Desmond’s newspaper, Hard Cash. McNamara was the main founder of the SDF (qv).
Meagher, Richard Denis (January 11, 1866 - September 17, 1931), notorious lawyer and politician in NSW, and Lord Mayor of Sydney, 1916-17. He became Speaker of the Legislative Assembly. Meagher was a law partner with the equally outrageous William Patrick Crick (qv). Meagher once (about 1898) fought a duel with John Norton (qv) outside the 137 King Street tea rooms of Quong Tart (qv), after Norton attacked Meagher in his newspaper. Although he was struck off the Roll of Solicitors in 1896, in 1916 he became the first Labor Lord Mayor of Sydney and he spent 21 years, 6 months and 29 days in the NSW Legislative Assembly.
Melba, Dame Nellie (b. Helen Porter Mitchell; May 19, 1861 - February 23, 1931), Australian opera soprano who ‘played before the crowned heads of Europe’. Her early Australian appearances were promoted by theatrical entrepreneur JC Williamson (qv) and she sang to 4,000 people in Sydney Town Hall in October, 1902. Melba Toast and Peach Melba are foods named after her. She’s the woman on the $100 note.
Melville, Herman (August 1, 1819 - September 28, 1891), American novelist, essayist, and poet. During his lifetime his early novels were quite popular, but his audience declined later in his life. By the time of his death he had nearly been forgotten, but his masterpiece, Moby-Dick, was rediscovered later.
Miller, Emma (June 26, 1839 - January 22, 1917), pioneer Australian feminist, foundation president of the Woman’s Equal Franchise Association between 1894 and 1905. She marched with the leaders of the Queensland shearers’ strike on their release from prison in November, 1893. On February 2, 1912 she famously stuck a hatpin in a horse ridden by the Queensland Police Commissioner, Patrick Cahill, causing him to be thrown and injured. She is honoured with a statue in King George Square, Brisbane.
Mitchell, David Scott (March 19, 1836 - July 24, 1907), Australian bibliophile, philanthropist and founder of the Mitchell Library in Sydney. Cousin of Rose Scott (qv). His nickname to the hansom cab drivers was ‘Old Four Hours’ because of his regular Monday morning rides from his house at 17 Darlinghurst Rd to various booksellers in search of exciting finds and bargains. Mitchell helped Henry Lawson financially on more than one occasion. A modest and retiring man, he would not allow his portrait to painted and he was never interviewed in the press.
Montefiore, Dora (1851 - December 21, 1933), suffragist, socialist and later communist, poet, journalist, traveller, co-founder of the WSL (qv) of NSW with Maybanke Anderson (qv), Rose Scott (qv) and Louisa Lawson. The first WSL meeting was at her home at 77 Darlinghurst Road, Sydney on May 6, 1891. A wealthy widow, she was shocked to learn that on her husband’s death she had no rights as guardian of their two children, so she turned to political action. She left Australia in 1892 and spent some years in France before returning to England and by 1905 joined the Pankhursts’ WSPU. In 1906 she was arrested and imprisoned for demonstrating in the Lobby of the House of Commons. She served seven days before being released after suffering a breakdown. In 1907 she joined the Adult Suffrage Society, becoming its honorary secretary in 1909. In 1924 she went to Moscow representing the Communist Party of Australia.
Moran, Cardinal Francis (September 16, 1830 - August 16, 1911), third Archbishop of Sydney, born at Leighlinbridge, Ireland. From The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV, 1912 (public domain): In 1887 he traversed 6,000 miles to consecrate Dr Gibney at Perth. In subsequent years he went to Ballarat, Bathurst, Bendigo, Hobart, Goldburn, Lismore, Melbourne, and Rockhampton for the consecration of their respective cathedrals. He consecrated fourteen bishops, ordained nearly five hundred priests, dedicated more than five thousand churches, and professed more than five thousand nuns. The thirty-two charities which he founded in the city of Sydney remain as the crowning achievement of his life. A quarter of a million people witnessed the funeral procession through the heart of the city of Sydney.
Morant, Breaker Harry ‘Breaker’ Morant (1864 - February 27, 1902), poet, soldier and rebel, born in Devonshire, UK, arrived in Queensland in 1884 after a period of service in the Royal Navy. On March 13, 1884 Morant married Daisy May O’Dwyer, who later became famous in Australia as the anthropologist Daisy Bates (qv), who lived among tribal Indigenous people. Following a period as a poet published in The Bulletin, ‘Breaker’ signed up to fight with the colonial troops in the Boer War in South Africa, after having walked to Adelaide, South Australia to enlist. The war bored this man of action, and instead of capturing prisoners and bringing them back to camp, he shot 12 and stood trial accused of killing intending prisoners of war. Found guilty, his death warrant was personally signed by the British commander in South Africa, Lord Kitchener. He was executed by firing squad (sources differ as to date) with a comrade-at-arms Lt Peter Handcock. In 1980, Australian director Bruce Beresford made the movie Breaker Morant.
Morris, William (March 24, 1834 - October 3, 1896), English philosopher, artist, social reformer, poet, medievalist, utopian novelist (News from Nowhere) and a founder of Britain’s socialist movement. He was one of the principal founders of the British Arts and Crafts Movement and is still highly regarded as a designer of wallpaper and patterned fabrics. His books are considered to have heavily influenced CS Lewis’s Narnia series, and JRR Tolkien. After the death of Tennyson in 1892, Morris was offered the Poet Laureateship, but declined.
Moses, Jack (1860 - 1945), liquor salesman and writer (Beyond the City Gates). The ‘dog who shat in the tuckerbox’ is a famous Australian tale and immortalised in an old folk song, possibly penned by someone who called himself ‘Bowyang Yorke’, but amended and brought to wider attention by Jack Moses, one of Henry Lawson’s close mates, fellow pranksters and bards. Lawson and Moses probably would have been drinking mates, too, if Moses, although a wine salesman, were not a teetotaller. Jack O’Hagan wrote a hit ‘Dog on Tuckerbox’ song based on the bowderlised lyrics transmitted by Jack Moses. The Bulletin Book of Humorous Verses and Recitations (1920) was dedicated to him as a “good Australian” who was “for many years a Bulletin reciter in the bush”, for he recited at agricultural shows. The Lawson poem ‘Joseph’s Dreams’ refers to Moses: “my best friend was a Yid”. Moses wrote of their friendship as a contributor to Lawson, Bertha (qv), and Brereton, John Le Gay (qv), Henry Lawson by his Mates, Sydney, 1931. On the streets of Sydney in his last years, Moses sold his poems on postcards.
Mullens, Arthur (1874 - ?), Australian poet; a librettist for Edward Elgar.
Mutch, Thomas (October 17, 1885 - June 4, 1958), journalist, historian, genealogist, NSW parliamentarian (Education Minister for many years) and close friend of Henry Lawson during the latter’s last 19 years. These were Lawson’s years of decline due to alcoholism and Mutch was a loyal and helpful friend to him, despite being almost 18 years the poet’s junior. In 1910, Mutch and Lawson camped together at Mallacoota, Victoria, and Cape Howe, and in 1914 they travelled together to visit Lawson’s childhood home at Eurunderee (New Pipeclay), NSW. A NSW Labor Party radical, in June, 1924, Mutch challenged Jack Lang (qv) for the leadership and lost by one vote. In 1933 Mutch published The Early Life of Henry Lawson. Like his mate, Tom Mutch is buried in Waverley Cemetery (qv).
Norton I, Emperor (Joshua Norton; January 17, 1811 - January 8, 1880), self-proclaimed Emperor of the United States of America and Protector of Mexico, San Francisco eccentric. On September 16, 1854 he walked into the office of the San Francisco Call, dressed like a Gilbert and Sullivan-style monarch. He asked the editor to publish what he called a “decree”, proclaiming himself “Emperor of the United States and Protector of Mexico”. Over subsequent years he was a famous character in San Francisco and his decrees were regularly published in Call. The census of 1870 lists him with the occupation of ‘Emperor’. He was written about by such luminaries as Robert Louis Stevenson (qv), and The King in Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain (qv) is reportedly modelled after him. On January 8, 1880, America’s greatest leader dropped dead on Grant Avenue. When he died, the Chronicle newspaper featured the headline: ‘Le Roi est Mort’. Norton I lay in state for a few days, his body dressed in a new imperial uniform provided by the city fathers of San Francisco, and respectfully visited by more than 30,000 of his loyal subjects; the cortège was two miles long and the funeral arrangements were the most elaborate San Francisco had ever seen.
Norton, John Napoleon (January 25, 1858 - April 9, 1916), English-born Australian publisher, Member of the NSW Legislative Assembly for 11 years and 8 months, demagogue, psychopath, possibly murderer. Norton was a writer and newspaper editor best known for his Sydney, Australia newspaper (or scandal-sheet) Truth (owned variously by William Nicholas Willis, qv, a political aspirant who self-promoted in the publication, as well as AG Taylor, qv, and Paddy Crick, qv). Norton’s staunchly nationalist paper published many late-19th-Century Australian authors such as Henry Lawson. Norton (a man scarcely five feet tall and quite bald at a young age – his detractors often referred to his inability even to grow eyebrows, and to his allegedly hideous visage) edited the book The History of Capital and Labor. He combined racism and republicanism in a unique blend and was one of the last vocal republicans associated with the Labor Party (though never actually a member) before Federation in 1901. He was also extremely pugnacious and litigious, and knew the insides of courts well, often as the defendant in libel suits. He used lengthy court reports of his marital battles as copy for Truth, even when those documents made him look like a sadistic moster. When he died, the immigrant who in the 1890s had so little money he cadged drinks off his friends was very wealthy and owned a chain of newspapers in the major Australian capital cities circulating 147,000 nationally that brought him an income of £15,000 per year. Norton, writing in Truth, probably invented the word ‘wowser’, now a standard Australian imprecation against puritanical people.
O’Dowd, Bernard (April 11, 1866 - September 1, 1953), Australian child prodigy, radical, public servant, poet, journalist and editor. He co-founded the influential radical journal, Tocsin. In 1886, O’Dowd joined the Melbourne Lyceum, the educational and social arm of the ASL (qv). In 1920, he left his wife and commenced a de facto relationship with Marie Pitt (1869 - 1948), Christian-anarchist poet. He also joined the Theosophical Society, Dr Charles Strong’s (qv) Australian Church and, later, Frederick Sinclaire’s Free Religious Fellowship. In 1912 he denounced the White Australia policy as “unbrotherly, undemocratic and unscientific”. In the following year O’Dowd was president of the Victorian Rationalist Association. A few weeks before his death O’Dowd confirmed his firm belief in anarcho-communism.
O’Malley, King (July 2, 1858 - December 20, 1953), colourful Australian politician. In order to pass as a British subject and thus eligible to sit in Australian parliaments, he claimed to have been born in Canada but he was probably born in the USA. In 1889 he came to Queensland, probably to escape debt and possibly prosecution for embezzlement. In Australia he worked as an itinerant insurance salesman, also preaching evangelical Christianity and temperance. He eventually became Federal Minister for Home Affairs, and played a prominent role in selecting the site of the future capital of Australia, driving in the first peg which marked the start of development of the city of Canberra. He also agitated for the establishment of the Commonwealth Bank of Australia. O’Malley resigned from the cabinet of Billy Hughes (qv) in protest and became an outspoken anti-conscriptionist. When he died he was the last surviving member of the first Australian Parliament.
O’Rell, Max (pen name of Paul Blouet; 1848 - May 25, 1903), French author and journalist. He enjoyed brilliant success with his first book, John Bull and Co and became a household word in England, Australia and America. He arrived in Sydney from San Francisco in 1892 and dined with the Governor of NSW, Lord Jersey (qv) and his wife. O’Rell made quite an impact on colonial Sydney, and wrote about the country. He gets a mention in Henry Lawson’s short story, ‘Shall We Gather at the River?’ (The Romance of the Swag, 1907).
Olcott, Colonel Henry Steel (August 2, 1832 - February 17, 1907), founder and first president of the Theosophical Society, possibly the first prominent Western person convert to Buddhism. He is still honoured in Sri Lanka for his promotion of Buddhism. In September, 1875, Olcott, Helena Blavatsky (qv) and others formed the Theosophical Society. He chose Sydney as headquarters of the newly chartered Australasian Section in 1891. Even though the section failed, Annie Besant (qv) had a triumphal lecture tour of Australasia in 1894, with Sydney again headquarters.
Owen, Robert (May 14, 1771 - November 17, 1858), Welsh-born philanthropist, social reformer, pioneer of the co-operative movement, founder of several utopian communities, eg, New Lanark, Scotland and New Harmony, Indiana, USA. In 1832 he founded an equitable labour exchange system, a forerunner of today’s Local Exchange Trading Systems (the LETS Scheme).
Palmer, Vance (Edward Vivian Palmer; August 28, 1885 - July 15, 1959) Australian novelist, dramatist, essayist and critic, considered one of the founders of Australian drama. Author of The Legend of the Nineties (1954), a critical study of the development of the nationalist tradition in Australian literature usually associated with The Bulletin. His wife Nettie Palmer (1885-1964) was a poet, essayist and one of Australia’s leading literary critics.
Pankhurst, Emmeline (July 14, 1858 - June 14, 1928), a leader of the British suffragette movement.
Parkes, Sir Henry (May 27, 1815 - April 27, 1896), Australian politician (Free Trade Party, or Anti-Socialist Party), sometimes called the ‘Father of Federation’ and considered the most prominent among the Australian Founding Fathers. Parkes was described during his lifetime by The Times as “the most commanding figure in Australian politics”. He was first elected to the NSW Parliament in 1854 and was a strong supporter of free trade, immigration programs and education reforms. He introduced laws that gave the government the power to employ teachers and create public schools, abolished government funding to religious schools and improved prisons. He was premier of NSW five times between 1872 and 1891 and was knighted in 1877. His image appears on the Australian $5 note and the suburb of Parkes in Canberra is named after him as well as the town of Parkes in central NSW.
Parsons, Albert (June 24, 1848 - November 11, 1887), one of the Haymarket Martyrs (qv), head of the Chicago Knights of Labor (qv), radical socialist activist, hanged under doubtful circumstances following a bomb attack on police at the Haymarket Riot of May 4, 1886 in Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Paterson, ‘Banjo’ (Andrew Barton Paterson; February 17, 1864 - April 5, 1941), Australian bush poet and author of Australia’s favourite song and unofficial national anthem, ‘Waltzing Matilda’ as well as many poems such as ‘Clancy of the Overflow’ and ‘'The Man From Snowy River’. Paterson was born at Narambla, near Orange, NSW, educated at Sydney Grammar School and Sydney University, and practised as a solicitor. He began submitting and having his poetry published in The Bulletin and in 1895 had a collection of his works published. He became a war correspondent for The Sydney Morning Herald during the Boer war, the Boxer Rebellion and World War I. Banjo Paterson’s image appears on the Australian $10 note, a position formerly held by his friend and colleague Henry Lawson.
Petrie, Larry (Larry De Petrie; Laurence Petrie; 1859 - March, 1901), Scottish-born American-Australian anarchist activist in Sydney in the 1890s. According to Mary Gilmore (qv), he planted at Circular Quay a bomb that was disabled by Artie Rae (qv). On a later occasion, after telling Ernie Lane (qv) he was off to blow up a non-union ship, Petrie booked a passage on the SS Aramac. On board at midnight on Thursday, July 27, 1893 near the entrance to Moreton Bay, near Brisbane, he exploded his bomb. Petrie was a good-looking man with a big moustache who worked as a casual labourer, and lost an arm. A co-founder of the Melbourne Anarchist Club in 1886 and the SDL (qv) in 1889, he also tried to establish a Six-Hours Movement in order to demand a six-hour working day, and helped form a small branch of the Knights of Labor (qv). An anarchist by temperament and persuasion, although it seems he didn’t use the term of himself, Petrie became AWU (qv) Secretary-Organiser in Sydney.
Philp, James (b. c. 1860), Scottish-born Australian journalist and author, the one who drafted the rules of the Dawn and Dusk Club (qv). After writing for New Zealand newspapers, in Sydney in 1888 he founded Australia’s first Chinese newspaper, later moving to Brisbane where he wrote for the Courier. His son, Sir Roslyn Foster Bowie Philp, was a prominent Queensland judge.
Poe, Edgar Allan (January 19, 1809 - October 7, 1849), American writer and critic; one of the leaders of the American Romantics. He is best known for his tales of the macabre and his poems, especially ‘The Raven’, which deals with the death of the poet’s beloved Lenore.
Price, Thomas (October 21, 1842 - July 3, 1911), soldier, lieutenant-colonel in Victoria’s Permanent Military Forces. In Melbourne on August 30, 1890, during the Maritime Strike, Price earned the wrath of the nascent labor movement by telling his men that if they were commanded to fire on protesting strikers they should “fire low and lay the disturbers of law and order out so that their duty would not have to be performed again!'”
Reid, Sir George February 25, 1845 - September 12, 1918), Scottish-born Premier of NSW, fourth Prime Minister of Australia (August 18, 1904 - July 5, 1905). In 1910 he resigned from Parliament and was appointed as Australia’s first High Commissioner in London.
Quinn, Roderic (November 26, 1867 - August 15, 1949), Australian poet (‘The House of the Commonwealth’; ‘The Lotus-Flower’; ‘Stars in the Sea’), one of the Bulletin (qv) school of poets, by the end of the 1890s widely considered one of the leading poets in Australia. Quinn was a close friend of Henry Lawson. With Victor Daley (qv) he was a poet of the ‘Celtic Twilight’ and quite removed from the bush balladry school. His brothers Patrick (1862 - 1926; a journalist and Member of NSW Parliament) and James also published verse. Quinn reposes buried at Waverley Cemetery (qv), Sydney.
Rae, Arthur (March 14, 1860 - November 25, 1943), shearer, journalist, labor activist, member of the NSW and Australian parliaments (ALP Senator 1910-14 and 1929-35). He was an organiser for the AWU (qv) – Vice President in 1893; President in 1895; Honorary General Secretary 1898-99; expelled 1920. Sentenced in 1890 for refusing to pay a fine, he was sentenced to ‘sixty-one consecutive fortnights’ imprisonment but in was released after a month following widespread protests. Rae was editor of Hummer (and its co-founder with Walter Head, qv, in 1891) and of the Sydney Worker. He believed that union leaders should have a greater role than union members. On November 1, 1912, he became the first senator suspended from the Australian Senate. Influenced by Rose Scott (qv) he developed an interest in women’s issues.
Riley, Alban Joseph (June 4, 1844 - July 24, 1914), Mayor of Sydney and politician. A draper by trade, he was Alderman for Cook Ward from December 1885 to November 1891. He was a magistrate in 1883 and an alderman in the Burwood Municipal Council in 1884 (Mayor in 1887). He was appointed Special Commissioner to organise the State’s centenary celebrations of 1888. As a free trader Riley was elected to the Legislative Assembly for South Sydney, 1877-89, and appointed to the Legislative Council 1891-93.
Roberts, Tom (Thomas William Roberts; March 8, 1856 - September 14, 1931), Australian artist and a key member of the Heidelberg School. Born in Dorchester, Dorset, England, he is most strongly identified as an artist living in the state of Victoria, but in the 1890s he was part of an artists’ colony which counted among its number, at various times, Julian Ashton (qv), Arthur Streeton (qv), Livingston Hopkins (qv) et al, at Balmoral (Curlew Camp on Little Sirius Cove, Mosman), now a northern suburb of Sydney. In September 1891, he travelled to Sydney with Streeton, where they painted at this camp.
Robertson, George (April 14, 1860 - August 27, 1933), Australian bookseller and publisher, one half (with DM Angus, qv, until the latter’s death in 1901) of Angus & Robertson, the pre-eminent publisher of Australian writers especially from the golden era c. 1895 to 1925. In about 1895 A&R branched from just bookselling to publishing as well. Among the authors were May Gibbs (qv), Norman Lindsay (qv), Henry Lawson (qv), CJ Dennis (qv), AB 'Banjo' Paterson (qv) and Victor Daley (qv). Robertson not only recognised many a promising author and artist, he often took considerable risks with backing their careers, and, as Lawson found many times, extended many kindnesses, gifts and loans. Although for a long period Robertson forbade Lawson to enter the A&R premises, because the poet was so loud (being deaf), disruptive and often drunk, Lawson understood Robertson’s position and sometimes signed his letters to the bookman “Your friend till death”. According to the Australian Dictionary of Biography, “During the last 30 years of his life the number of volumes he published (about 600) exceeded the total number brought out in the same period by all the other publishers in Australia. The Australian Encyclopaedia, published in two volumes in 1926, is one of the most important books published in Australia.” [My grandfather was one of its typesetters – PW.]
Robertson, Sir John (October 15, 1816 - May 8, 1891), land reformer, explorer and politician. Chairman of the trustees of the Royal National Park (second national park in the world) and responsible for its reservation; anti-Federationist; president of the Reform Club 1877-82.
Rogers, Will (November 4, 1879 - August 15, 1935), American humorist, entertainer and pacifist. Rogers toured Australia and New Zealand with Wirth Brothers’ Circus in 1903, performing his rope tricks, before returning to the USA the following year to appear at the St Louis Exposition and receive his first vaudeville bookings in Chicago.
Rosa, Sam (January 31, 1866 - May 25, 1940), journalist, editor, socialist activist, novelist (The Coming Terror), member of Melbourne Anarchists and there an associate of Chummy Fleming (qv), Jack Andrews (qv), Larry Petrrie (qv) et al, active also in Sydney. Member of the LEL (qv). Co-founder of the SDL (qv) in 1889; active in the ASL (qv) but deposed in January 1892 as the league tended to espouse the state socialism that he opposed. In September, 1892 he sued Truth for libel. Editor of Truth in 1906, he wrote an editorial “I DEMAND JUSTICE” and signed in the name of John Norton (qv) when the latter was too drunk to do so following legal proceedings initiated by John Haynes (qv) that alleged Norton was a criminal and murderer. He described his many detractors in the labor movement as generally persons who “have parasitically fastened themselves upon organised labour and have long been in receipt of absurdly high salaries”. From 1937 he was President of the Society of Australian Composers and Authors.
Rose-Soley, Agnes (‘Rose de Boheme’; c. 1847 - 1938), writer; wrote the 'Marching Song' for the New Australia (qv) emigrants, and also wrote on Antarctica and the South Seas home of RL Stevenson (qv).
Salomons, Sir Julian Emanuel (November 4, 1836 - April 6, 1909), English-born Member of the NSW Legislative Council, prominent in Jewish-Australian affairs.
Sceusa, Francesco (November 21, 1851 - June 21, 1919), Sicilian-born Australian socialist, journalist, draughtsman and philanthropist, founder of Australia’s first Italian-language newspaper, Italo-Australiano, and a founder of the ASL (qv). While a young university student in Naples he involved himself with republican and anarchist movements, joining the International Working Men’s Association (the Internationale) of Karl Marx (qv). In 1883 he was a foundation member of the (Royal) Geographical Society of Australasia. In April, 1893 at the Socialist International’s congress at Zurich, Switzerland he refused to be counted as part of the English delegation, thereby securing for Australia an independent vote. Sceusa criticised the hostility of Labor leaders towards immigration and migrants.
Schellenberg, Joseph, German-born anarchist, refugee from Bismarck’s Germany, early member of the ASL (qv), and comrade especially of Jack Andrews (qv). He was a leader of the Communist-Anarchist Group of Central Cumberland which was centred on a farm at Smithfield, outside Sydney. In 1897 with Andrews and John Dwyer (qv) he founded an Isis Lodge in Sydney and attempted its affiliation with the Theosophical Society in London.
Scott, Rose (October 8, 1847 - April 20, 1925), Australian women’s rights activist, co-founder (May 23, 1891) with Louisa Lawson et al of the Women’s Literary Society in Sydney, out of which grew the WSL (qv). She was president of a local branch of the London Peace Society, formed in 1907, and international secretary of the National Council of Women of NSW. Her maternal grandfather, George Barney, was the architect of Sydney’s Fort Denison (qv), and one of her cousins was David Scott Mitchell (qv), the book collector and benefactor of the Mitchell Library.
Seddon, Sir Richard (June 22, 1845 - June 10, 1906), Premier of New Zealand, Liberal Party Prime Minister 1893-1906. He died suddenly in office on board the Oswetry Grange on his return to New Zealand from a trip to Sydney.
Sewell, Henry (September 7, 1807 - May 14, 1879), notable campaigner for New Zealand self-government, generally regarded as the country’s first premier, albeit only for 13 days in May, 1856.
Shelley, Percy Bysshe (August 4, 1792 - July 8, 1822), one of the major English Romantic poets. After eloping to Scotland with Harriet Westbrook he became interested in the ideas of the radical/anarchist philosopher William Godwin. He began to visit Godwin’s house and fell in love with Mary Godwin (later called Mary Shelley), the sixteen-year-old daughter of Godwin by his first wife, the feminist writer Mary Wollstonecraft, who had written A Vindication of the Rights of Women and had died eight days after Mary’s birth in 1797. (Mary Shelley wrote Frankenstein while with her husband, Lord Byron and others in Switzerland.)
Shenton, The Reverend George Darnell (1867 - 1941), Precentor of St Andrew’s Cathedral, 1893-95, Headmaster of Cathedral School 1893-95. Deaconed 1890 (by Bishop of Exeter), priested 1891 (by Bishop Barry of Sydney, for Bishop of Exeter).
Sheppard, Kate (Katherine Wilson Sheppard (March 10, 1847 - July 13, 1934), the most prominent member of the women’s suffrage movement of New Zealand, the first country to grant women the vote (1893).
Smith, Beaumont (August 15, 188 - January 2, 1950), Adelaide-born theatrical director/producer and pioneer film-maker. He staged a dramatic version of Lawson’s While the Billy Boils in 1916 and a silent movie of the same name in 1921 which starred Henry Lawson. He also filmed Joe (1924) based on Lawson’s works, and The Man from Snowy River (1920), based on works by Banjo Paterson (qv).
Smith, Granny (Maria Ann Smith; b. late-1799 - March 9, 1870) of Ryde, a suburb of Sydney, Australia, who produced the famous apple that bears her name. She was born Maria Ann Sherwood in the rural parish of Peasmarsh, Sussex, England. Maria Smith died in 1870; the apple that bears her name never became a commercial variety in her lifetime but continued to be cultivated by local orchardists.
Spence, William (WG Spence; August 7, 1846 - December 13, 1926), Scottish-born Australian trade union leader and politician who played a leading role in the formation of both Australia’s largest union, the AWU (qv) – he was its first secretary in 1894-98 and president 1898-1917, and the Australian Labor Party. It is believed he was a witness of the Eurkea Rebellion (qv). In the 1880s often preached with the Primitive Methodists and the Bible Christians. In 1914-15 Spence was Australia’s Postmaster-General.
Stanley, Annie Creo (October 16, 1865 - November 30, 1940), Sydney-based union official and journalist, wife (for a short time) of Edwin Brady (qv). She spent her childhood in Sydney and became an actress, but a lung ailment forced her to take a job in an umbrella factory. Known for dressing in ‘semi-masculine attire’, in 1891 she established the Redfern Co-operative Laundry to provide work for laundresses on strike at Pyrmont Steam Laundry. The Bulletin (qv) said that she “should take up the manly custom of smoking a pipe”. On September 3, 1891, Stanley became the first female delegate to the TLC (qv). She was a member of the ASL (qv). From about 1906 she ran a grocery business in Granville, a Sydney suburb, under the name ‘Mrs A Stanley’, sharing the address for the rest of her life with Alvilde Christine Nielson, a milliner.
Stanley, Henry Morton (b. John Rowlands; January 29, 1841 - May 10, 1904), Welsh-born American explorer and author (How I found Livingstone, 1872; Through the Dark Continent, 1877; In Darkest Africa, 1890) who found Dr David Livingstone, on November 10, 1871. He also solved perhaps the last great mystery of African exploration by tracing the course of the river Congo to the sea. Stanley visited Australia in 1891 on a lecture tour and was in Sydney in mid-November, in the same week as Rudyard Kipling (qv); like Kipling he receives much criticism for his imperialist views.
Starlight, Captain (Frank Pearson or Pierson; 1837 - December 22, 1899), bushranger (qv) who was captured on Christmas Day, 1868 on a rock ledge near a waterhole in the Gundabooka Range, now part of Gundabooka National Park, near Bourke, NSW.
Stephens, Alfred (AG Stephens; August 28, 1865 - April 15, 1933), Australian miscellaneous writer and literary critic, notably for The Bulletin (qv). He was appointed to that position by its owner, JF Archibald (qv) in 1894. In about 1890 he was sub-editor of the journal Boomerang at Brisbane, which had been founded by William Lane (qv) in 1887. For ten years from 1896 Stephens edited The Bulletin’s famous ‘Red Page’ reviews of literature which could either make or break the careers of many writers, for his reputation as a critic was without peer in Australia. Henry Lawson often felt the sting of his pen, but Stephens was in fact one of his first literary champions. The Red Pagan, a collection of his criticisms from The Bulletin appeared in 1904, and a biography of Victor Daley (qv) in the same year. Stephens wrote a biography of poet Christopher Brennan (qv).
Stevens, Bertram (October 8 or 9, 1879 - February 14, 1922), Australian journal editor (Single Tax; Native Companion; Art in Australia; Lone Hand) literary and art critic, anthologist (An Anthology of Australian Verse [which contained five poems by Henry Lawson]; The Golden Treasury of Australian Verse). He succeeded AG Stephens (qv) as editor of the ‘Red Page’ of The Bulletin. Born at Inverell, NSW, in 1882 he moved with his family to Sydney where he was educated at public schools. In 1895 he began a fifteen-year period as a solicitor’s clerk. During this time he read widely and worked as a freelance journalist, coming into contact with a number of literary figures. Stevens campaigned for the land policies of Henry George (qv), temporarily winning Henry Lawson to the cause. He was a founding member of the Dawn and Dusk Club (qv). Stevens was very involved with attempts at rehabilitating Henry Lawson at Yanco and Edwin Brady’s (qv) property at Mallacoota. At the time of his death Stevens was preparing A History of Australian Literature (unpublished).
Stevenson, David Russell (c. 1862 - after 1927), bushworker, fiancé of Mary Cameron (qv) in 1893 before he left for New Australia (qv) on the first such voyage of the Royal Tar in 1893. Said to have been related (second cousin, according to some) to Robert Louis Stevenson (qv). An athletic and handsome man with an eye for the ladies, described by one who knew him at Cosme (qv) as a “sardonic, Hemingwayesque type of man, very proud of the black hairs on his chest”, he was known to swim home at night to Balmain across Sydney’s Darling Harbour, clothes in a bundle atop his head, rather than catch the ferry. He acted as guardian for Wally Head (son on Walter Head, qv) when the Royal Tar sailed, as Head stayed in Sydney editing New Australia with Mary Cameron. In the dying days of Cosme as an intentional community (around 1905), Dave Stevenson was very active in a political manner but not an official leader – Gavin Souter (1968) calls him an “adroit manipulator”. He was one of a number of the rump of the Australian Paraguayans who served in Europe in WWI, serving as a sergeant in France where he was wounded and discharged in 1916, aged 54, returning and marrying the widowed Clara Laurence – the Nurse Clara Jones (qv) with whom he had strolled the deck of the Royal Tar nearly a quarter of a century before. Dave and Clara Stevenson left Cosme in 1927 (among the last of the pioneers to leave) and spent their last years on the Channel Island of Guernsey, courtesy of money Dave inherited from his family.
Stevenson, Robert Louis (November 13, 1850 - December 3, 1894), Scottish author (Kidnapped; Treasure Island; The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde) who spent some of the last years of his life on the Pacific island of Samoa, originally going there for his health and staying because he loved the ‘South Seas’. He stayed in Sydney on four different times in the early 1890s, sometimes for several months at a time. When Stevenson last left Sydney, he sailed out on the same steamer as Young Griffo (qv) and his boxing entourage.
Stowe, Harriet Beecher (June 14, 1811 - July 1, 1896), American abolitionist and novelist (Uncle Tom’s Cabin), the daughter of Lyman Beecher, an abolitionist Congregationalist preacher from Boston, and the sister of renowned clergyman and reformer, Henry Ward Beecher (qv). She journeyed to Europe, becoming friends with George Eliot, Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Lady Byron. British public opinion turned against her when her charges against Lord Byron’s love affairs became public.
Streeton, Sir Arthur (April 8, 1867 - September 1, 1943), Australian artist and a member of the Heidelberg School of Australian artists, best known for his rural landscapes. In the 1890s he was part of an artists’ colony which counted among its number, at various times, Tom Roberts (qv), Julian Ashton (qv), Livingston Hopkins (qv) et al, at Balmoral (Curlew Camp on Little Sirius Cove, Mosman), now a northern suburb of Sydney. In 1937 he was knighted for services to the arts.
Strong, Rev. Charles (September 26, 1844 - February 12, 1942), Scottish-born Australian dissident Presbyterian minister, anti-conscription activist in WWI, social activist and founder of the Australian Church, which continued until 1957. Prime Minister Alfred Deakin (qv) was a member of the Australian Church, as was radical lawyer and poet Bernard O'Dowd (qv).
Summerfield, Rose (b. Rose Stone at Middleton Creek, near Ballarat in the gold mining districts of central Victoria; April 18, 1864 - April 14, 1922), Australian socialist and pioneer feminist. She was active in the ASA (qv) in Melbourne by 1886 and influenced by Joseph Symes (qv). She wrote articles for the Hummer (soon to become the Sydney Worker) under the name ‘Rose Hummer’, from April, 1892. Following the death of her first husband, Henry Summerfield, she married Jack Cadogan, a shearers’ cook in the Spring of 1897. A state socialist (she was a valued campaigner and speaker in the ASL, qv), disillusioned and embittered by the labor politicians she knew in Australia, who she believed had sold out the working class, Rose Cadogan and her husband travelled in 1899 to New Australia (qv), for which she had campaigned in Bourke in 1892, and in Paraguay they had four more sons. In 1908, like many others before them, they left the failed Paraguayan utopia and settled in Yataity, north of the town of Villarrica, where Rose worked as a kind of district nurse, selling her own herbal preparations, and Jack opened a store. One of Rose’s sons, Hugh, was captured by Paraguayan rebels, escaped and died soon after of tuberculosis in New Australia. Another son, Bronte, died of TB in 1947. Two of her sons, Eric and Harry, came to tragic grief as adults in Australia (Harry was taken by a crocodile in the Northern Territory), but she herself never saw Australia again – a Paraguayan bank failed and the Cadogans lost the money that would have brought them home. Her son León (Leon Cadogan; July 29, 1899 - May 30, 1973) is probably the best known of the descendants of New Australia, and became an authority on and defender of the culture of the Guaraní indigenous people of Paraguay.
Suttor, Sir Francis (April 30, 1839 - April 4, 1915), pastoralist, Member of the NSW Legislative Assembly (seat of Bathurst) for 25 years; Member of the NSW Legislative Council, two years. Held a number of posts, including Postmaster-General, Minister of Justice and Minister of Public Instruction in the governments of Sir George Dibbs (qv) and Sir Henry Parkes (qv). He accompanied Archduke Franz Ferdinand (qv) on a hunting trip near Nyngan, NSW. His bust by Nelson Illingworth (qv) is owned by the NSW Legislative Council. He was a patron of Australian literature, especially of Miles Franklin (qv).
Symes, Joseph (January 29, 1841 - December 29, 1906) combative British-born President of the ASA (qv) during the 1880s; former Methodist clergyman; acolyte of Charles Bradlaugh (1833-91), the founder of the National Secular Society in Britain. He delivered his first Freethought lecture at Newcastle, UK on December 17, 1876, later writing for the National Reformer and Freethinker. At the end of 1883 he immigrated to Melbourne, where he founded Liberator and agitated for the publication of Sunday newspapers and Sunday opening of art galleries and libraries. His thinking and style influenced Rose Summerfield (qv). From the mid-1880s Symes (perhaps because he wanted a parliamentary career) strongly opposed the leftward tendencies in the ASA, while many of his colleagues began to veer towards socialism and anarchism. (“Symes claimed that the anarchist section of the ASA were trying to ‘burst up’ the Association in order to use the funds to buy dynamite.” – Dr Bob James, Anarchism and State Violence in Sydney and Melbourne 1886-1896: An Argument about Australian Labour History, Ch. 4, 1986). Symes was a pamphleteer (‘Christianity at the Bar of Science’; ‘Christianity Essentially a Persecuting Religion’; ‘The Life and Death of my Religion’); popular lecturer and open-air speaker (along with Chummy Fleming, qv, et al) at the Queens Wharf and North Wharf Sunday afternoon meetings at the Yarra River, Melbourne. He remained in Australia till returning to England in 1906, dying later that year.
Tart, Mei Quong (b. Mei Guangda; 1850 - July 26, 1903), prominent and popular Sydney merchant, importer, pamphleteer (‘A Plea for the Abolition of the Importation of Opium’) and philanthropist. Some of his well-known tea rooms were used as meeting places for the women’s suffrage activities of Louisa Lawson’s Dawn Club. He was brutally bashed and robbed at his office by Frederick Duggan in the Queen Victoria Building on August 19, 1902, and all Sydney was shocked. The once-poor immigrant who was said to be “as well known as the Governor himself” died at his home in Ashfield in July, 1903. Among the 1,500 mourners at his funeral at Rookwood Cemetery was a ‘who’s who’ of Sydney and tributes came from all around the world. He was survived by his wife, two sons and four daughters.
Tasma (b. Jessie Couvreur; October 28, 1848 - October 23, 1897), Australian lecturer, author (Uncle Piper of Piper’s Hill; The Penance of Portia James) and journalist who took her pen-name from her home State of Tasmania. Following her European success as a novelist, she had a successful life as a lecturer on Australia to audiences in Europe. From 1894 she was the Brussels correspondent for The Times of London. The King of Belgium invited her to talk with him about this subject at his palace. Her fame subsided, quite a lot in the shadow of the better-known Bulletin (qv) school of writers. That school was at its peak in Australia in the mid-’90s when Tasma was at hers in Europe, thus she was eclipsed.
Taylor, Adolphus George (AG Taylor; nicknamed ‘Mudgee’ or ‘the Mudgee Camel’; June 14, 1857 - January 18, 1900), colourful politician of Sydney and co-founder and editor of Truth. His colleagues on that scurrilous paper included William Patrick Crick (qv), John Norton (qv) and William Nicholas Willis (qv); Henry Lawson was a contributor. Taylor was a Member of the NSW Legislative Assembly from December 11, 1882 to June 6, 1891. Although he had almost no money he fought Speaker of the Assembly Edmund Barton (qv; from 1901 the first Prime Minister of Australia) in a law suit that went to the Privy Council in England, and though not a trained lawyer, argued his suit and won, refusing then to accept a £1,000 damages award on the grounds that it would come from the pockets of the people of NSW. A hard-drinking man, he founded Echo Farm ‘home for inebriates’ but himself died in Callan Park, Sydney’s main ‘mental asylum’ at the time.
Taylor, George Augustine (August 1, 1872 - January 20, 1928), Australian architect, engineer, editor of Builder and a pioneer of commercial aviation, who flew a glider in the first heavier-than-aircraft flight on the continent of Australia. This he did, with his wife Florence Taylor (December 29, 1879 - February 13, 1969), Australia’s first woman architect, structural engineer and civil engineer, on the same day, at Narrabeen, a northern beach suburb of Sydney, on December 5, 1909. The glider they flew in was based on the box-kite constructions invented by world aviation pioneer Lawrence Hargrave (qv), another New South Welshman. Taylor, a drinking mate of Henry Lawson’s (they were both members the‘Dawn and Dusk Club’, qv), and founder of the Wireless Institute of NSW in 1910, had built a biplane with a box-kite tail for balance, from coachwood, covered with oiled calico. His death came when he drowned in his bathtub as a result of an epileptic fit.
Thoreau, Henry David (July 12, 1817 - May 6, 1862), American tax resister, anti-war activist, essayist and author, most famous for Walden (1854), his book about voluntary simplicity and living close to Nature, and ‘Civil Disobedience’ (1849), his influential treatise based on his belief that people should not allow governments to overrule or weaken their consciences, which inspired Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, among countless others around the world.
Thunderbolt (Captain Thunderbolt; Frederick Ward; 1833 - May 25, 1870), notorious Australian bushranger (qv), allegedly shot dead by Constable AB Walker on May 25, 1870, though allegations have been made that it was his brother who was shot and he survived into the 1920s. Thunderbolt had been the scourge of inns and mail coaches around Bourke and Uralla, NSW, and had done at least 80 robberies netting him £20,000.
Tillet, Ben (September 11, 1860 - January 27, 1943), British trade union leader and politician; colleague of HH Champion (qv). Labour Party representative in the British Parliament 1917-24 and 1929-31. Although noted as a socialist in his early career, Tillett moved to the right and courted controversy amongst progressives for his outspoken support of Britain’s involvement in WWI. Tillet toured Australia in 1897 and 1898, where he was fêted at the ‘Napoleon of Labour’.
Turner, Ethel (January 24, 1872 - April 8, 1958), Australian novelist and children's writer (Seven Little Australians, 1894; The Family at Misrule, 1895) dealing with the lives of the Woolcott family, particularly with its rebellious children. She published a number of other books for children, short stories and poems.
Twain, Mark (b. Samuel Langhorne Clemens; November 30, 1835 - April 21, 1910), anti-war, anti-imperialist American humorist and novelist (The Adventures of Tom Sawyer; The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn; ‘The War Prayer’). Twain arrived in Australia on the SS Warrimoo on September 15, 1895, toured and lectured for about three months and wrote of his travels in Following the Equator. He had to do the lecture tour due to lack of finances. In More Tramps Abroad, he wrote: “The Australians do not seem to me to differ noticeably from Americans, either in dress, carriage, ways, pronunciation, inflections, or general appearance.” It is recorded (no doubt with poetic hyperbole) that when Henry Lawson heard him lecture in Sydney, the young poet, seated in the front row, banged the stage so hard in enthusiasm that the white hair of the old American shook. The two dined together in Sydney.
Vag, The, see Batho, Tom.
Verne, Jules (February 8, 1828 - March 24, 1905), French author and a pioneer of the science-fiction genre.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; May 24, 1819 - January 22, 1901), Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from June 20, 1837, and Empress of India from January 1, 1877 until her death. Her reign lasted more than sixty-three years – longer than that of any other British monarch.
Walker, Thomas (February 5, 1858 - May 10, 1932), English-born Spiritualist, freethinker, poet, dramatist and political activist influential in Australia (particularly Sydney and NSW) in the late-19th and early-20th Centuries. Originally a child preacher. He set himself up as a materialising Spiritualist medium in Toronto in 1874. In 1874, the day after a coronial jury found that Walker had ‘feloniously’ caused the death of one John Saunders at a séance in which Walker used phosphorus to make ‘illuminated writing’ and ‘spiritual lights’, he returned to the UK and later (1876) became a journalist and medium in the USA. Arriving in Australia in 1877 he became a medium and lecturer in Melbourne, denounced Spiritualism in 1882 and co-founded the ASA (qv), which came to be most active in Melbourne and spawned the Melbourne Anarchist Club. In Sydney in 1885 he was charged with promulgating ‘obscene articles’, namely diagrams explaining birth control, but was exonerated. Walker set up as temperance lecture after accidentally shooting and wounding a clergyman in 1892. He was a Protectionist Member of the Legislative Assembly in NSW. He worked in Sydney and settled in Western Australia (WA) in 1899 where he wrote for the Kalgoorlie Sun and Kalgoorlie Miner and later became an editor of Sunday Times. In 1903 he was editor and part owner of Sunday Press. Walker was a Labor Member of the WA Legislative Assembly and defended Aboriginal rights.
Ward, Joseph (April 26, 1856 - July 8, 1930), Australian-born politician, Prime Minister of New Zealand on two occasions early in the 20th Century. In 1896, a judge declared Ward “hopelessly insolvent”. Ward, as Treasurer, was forced to resign his portfolios on June 16. In 1897, he was forced to file for bankruptcy, which legally obliged him to resign his seat in Parliament. However, a loophole allowed him to become a candidate again and he did so, winning with an increased majority. His financial troubles did him little or no political harm as he was perceived by many electors as being persecuted by his enemies for an honest mistake. In the 1928 election campaign, in what is believed to have been a mistake caused by his failing eyesight, Ward startled New Zealand by promising to to revive the economy by borrowing £70 million.
Washington, Booker Taliferro (April 5, 1856 - November 15, 1915), African-American educator and author. He was born into slavery at the community of Hale’s Ford in Franklin County, Virginia. After he and his mother were freed, as a young man he made his way east from West Virginia (where she had obtained work) to obtain schooling at Hampton in eastern Virginia at Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (founded in 1868), where he was a fellow student of Orpheus Myron McAdoo (qv). In his later years, Dr Washington became a leading educator and was a prominent and popular spokesperson for African-American citizens of the USA in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries.
Watson, Chris (John Christian Watson; April 9, 1867 - November 18, 1941), third Prime Minister of Australia, and the first Labor PM. Watson was born in Valparaiso, Chile, probably on April 9, 1867. In his lifetime he maintained that his father was a British seaman called George Watson. In fact, his father was a Chilean citizen of German descent, Johan Cristian Tanck. His mother was a New Zealander, Martha Minchin, who had married Tanck in New Zealand and then gone to sea with him. On July 9, 1893, Watson presided over a crowd of 10,000 people assembled in Sydney’s Domain to farewell the emigrants on William Lane’s (qv) New Australia (qv) expedition to Paraguay, which sailed on July 16. (The farewell address was given by 21-year-old William Holman, qv.)
Webb, Beatrice (January 2, 1858 - April 30, 1943), British socialist, economist and social reformer, wife of Sidney Webb (qv). In 1898 the Webbs conducted a year- long research journey in North America, Australia and New Zealand. In 1932 the Webbs visited the Soviet Union where they were famously duped by Stalinism.
Webb, Sidney (July 13, 1859 - October 13, 1947), English socialist, co-founder of the Fabian Society and the London School of Economics; husband of Beatrice Webb (qv). Arguing that it was Robert Owen (qv) and not Karl Marx (qv) who was the real founder of British socialism, Webb was for reform rather than revolution. In 1942 the Webbs published The Truth About Soviet Russia, regarded today as then to be a pro-Stalinist folly.
Wilde, Oscar (October 16, 1854 - November 30, 1900), Irish playwright, novelist and poet (The Importance of Being Earnest; The Picture of Dorian Grey).
Williamson, JC (James Cassius Williamson; August 26, 1845 - July 6, 1913), American-born Australian actor and theatrical entrepreneur, whose career started as a stagehand in the USA. He toured many stars in Australia, such as Melba (qv) and Sarah Bernhardt (qv). Well into the 20th Century JC Williamson’s was the best known of all Australian theatrical production companies.
Willis, William Nicholas (August 3, 1858 - April 3, 1922), Australian actor, land-dealer, politician and newspaper publisher. Son of a blacksmith, with fellow Mudgee, NSW identity Adolphus George Taylor (qv) he founded Truth, a scurrilous but popular journal (first issue, mid-August, 1890), made famous by its reprobate editor John Norton (qv). Member of the NSW Legislative Assembly for more than 15 years. After a land scandal he fled to South Africa, pursued through the courts by John Haynes (qv) and thence London where he established a cheap soft-pornography publishing company.
Windeyer, Margaret (November 24, 1866 - August 11, 1939), librarian, suffragist, daughter of Sir William Windeyer (qv) and Lady Windeyer, member of Lawson's Dawn Club who issued invitations for the meeting at her parents’ home at which the Women's Literary Society was formed, the nucleus of the later WSL (qv). She helped found the Women's College within the University of Sydney, serving on its council from 1907-39. She convened the meeting that established the NSW branch of the National Council of Women. The City of Sydney Public Library opened a children's book room as a result of her representations.
Windeyer, Lady Mary Elizabeth (1837? - 1912), women’s suffrage campaigner, founder of a home at Ashfield, NSW for destitute mothers, wife of Sir William (qv) and mother of Margaret (qv), her fifth of nine children. She founded the Exhibition of Women’s Industries and Centenary Fair (1888), the Women’s Hospital, Crown Street, Sydney, and foundation president of the WSL (qv).
Windeyer, Sir William Charles (September 19, 1834 - September 11, 1897), prominent judge in the colony of NSW who deliberated on many of the most famous Australian cases of the second half of the 19th Century (eg, the Joseph James Crouch, qv, impersonation and child molestation case of 1890). He was also a politician, elected June 29, 1859 to the seat of Lower Hunter in the NSW Legislative Assembly when he was not yet 25 years old. Windeyer was the presiding judge at the first court proceedings of the Lemon Syrup Case, a notorious 1890s criminal case in Sydney involving Paddy Crick (qv) among others. The judge was accused of judicial impropriety for almost strong-arming the jury into finding an accused wife-poisoner guilty, which the accused, George Dean, in fact turned out to be on his own confession. Windeyer’s wife Lady Windeyer (qv) was at the first meeting (June 4, 1891) of the WSL (qv) and an office bearer with Hon. WM Sutter, Mrs Wolstenholme (later Maybanke Anderson, qv), Miss May Manning, Mrs Dora Montefiore (qv), and Miss Rose Scott, qv.
Winspear, William Robert (February 16, 1859 - February 20, 1944), English-born Australian journalist, poet and socialist. He immigrated in 1874 and formed his radical ideas while working as a coal-miner at New Lambton, NSW. In March, 1887, with his wife Alice, he founded the newspaper Radical, which became the mouhpiece of the ASL (qv) In the 1890s, destitute in Sydney, he was arrested for burglary; Alice hanged herself on October 30, 1898 in an apparent attempt to gain government support for their five children. From 1912-16 ‘Bob’ Winspear worked as Treasurer of the Australian Socialist Party, often editing and writing for its newspaper, International Socialist. A fervent anti-conscriptionist in WWI, and fly in the ointment of the Australian Labor Party, Winspear, with Harry Holland (qv), wrote the party’s ‘Open Letter to the Conscript Boys of Australia’.
Wright, Fanny (Frances Wright; ‘the Great Red Harlot of Infidelity’; September 6, 1795 - December 13, 1852), Scottish-born, American writer, activist, freethinker, editor, orator, advocate of sexual liberation and free love, and lifelong rebel. With George Flower (1788 - 1862), her true soul-mate (and probable lover), Fanny Wright founded the Nashoba Commune in 1825 near Memphis, TN, USA, and spent her entire personal fortune on it, intending to educate slaves to prepare them for freedom and colonization in Haiti. She was inspired by Robert Owen (qv), and, with his son Robert Dale Owen (1801-77) campaigned for socialism, the abolition of slavery, universal suffrage, free secular education, birth control, and changes in the marriage and divorce laws. She also advocated a new dress code for women, developing styles that were later promoted by feminists such as Amelia Bloomer, Susan B Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
Yewen, Alfred Gregory (May 16, 1867 - June 11, 1923), English-born Australian journalist, early member of the ASL (qv), friend of the Lanes (qv) and in the UK of William Morris (qv), helping Morris to form the Socialist League. In Sydney Sydney, he became active in the ASL (qv) with WHT McNamara (qv). In 1894 he collaborated with WM Hughes (qv) and edited New Order. Apparently a founder of an intentional community at French’s Forest outside Sydney, and a friend of Henry Lawson’s, in 1891 he wrote from Brisbane to McNamara with best wishes on behalf of himself, Lawson and Ralph Baynham. Disillusioned with socialism, he left the movement and in 1900 published Yewen’s Directory of the Landholders of New South Wales.
Copyright 2006 Pip Wilson
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